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From Suffrage to the Senate America's Political Women: An Encyclopedia of Leaders, Causes & Issues

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments



Publisher's Note



Introduction



Volume 1: A–N



Abbott, Grace (1878-1939)


Abel, Hazel Pearl Hempel (1888-1966)


Abolitionist Movement, Women in the


Abortion


Abzug, Bella Savitzky (1920-1998)


Achtenberg, Roberta (b. 1950)


Adams, Abigail Smith (1744-1818)


Adams, Alma (b. 1946)


Adams, Annette Abbott (1877-1956)


Adams, Sandra (Sandy) (b. 1956)


Addams, Jane (1860-1935)


Addington, Julia C. (1829-1875)


Adkins v. Children’s Hospital (1923)


Adkins, Bertha Sheppard (1906-1983)


Affirmative Action


Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health (1983)


Albright, Madeleine Jana Korbel (b. 1937)


Alexander, Sadie Tanner Mosell (1898-1989)


Allen, Maryon Pittman (1925-2018)


Allred, Gloria Rachel Bloom (b. 1941)


Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incoporated®


Alpha Suffrage Club


Alvarez, Aida (b. 1949)


American Association of University Women, The


American Civil Liberties Union


American Life League, Inc.


American Woman Suffrage Association


American Women Presidents


Ames, Jessie Harriet Daniel (1883-1972)


Anderson, Amalia (b. 1974)


Anderson, Eugenie Moore (1909-1997)


Anderson, Marian (1897-1993)


Anderson, Mary (1872-1964)


Andrews, (Leslie) Elizabeth Bullock (1911-2002)


Angelou, Maya (1928-2014)


Anthony, Susan Brownell (1820-1906)


Anti-lynching Movement


Armstrong, Anne Legendre (1927-2008)


Ashbrook, (Emily) Jean Spencer (b. 1934)


Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching


Atkinson, Ti-Grace (b. 1939)


Avery, Byllye Yvonne Reddick (b. 1937)


Axne, Cynthia (b.1965)


Ayotte, Kelly (b. 1968)


Baca, Pauline Celia (Polly) (b. 1941)


Bachmann, Michele (b. 1956)


Bachur v. Democratic National Committee (1987)


Baker, Ella Josephine (1903-1986)


Baker, Irene Bailey (1901-1994)


Balch, Emily Greene (1867-1961)


Baldwin, Tammy (b. 1962)


Bañuelos, Romana Acosta (1925-2018)


Barnard, Catherine (Kate) Ann (1875-1930)


Barnes, Melody C. (b. 1964)


Barragán, Nannette Diaz (b. 1976)


Barshefsky, Charlene (b. 1950)


Bass, Charlotta Amanda Spears (1880-1969)


Bass, Karen (b. 1953)


Bates, Daisy Lee Gatson (1920-1999)


Beal v. Doe (1977)


Bean, Melissa Luburich (b. 1962)


Beatty, Joyce (b. 1950)


Beauvoir, Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de (1908-1986)


Bellamy, Carol (b. 1942)


Bellotti v. Baird (1976, 1979)


Belmont, Alva Erskine Smith Vanderbilt (1853-1933)


Benjamin, Medea (b. 1952)


Benjamin, Regina (b. 1956)


Bentley, Helen Delich (1923-2016)


Berkley, Shelley (b. 1951)


Berry, Mary Frances (b. 1938)


Bethune, Mary Jane McLeod (1875-1955)


Biggert, Judith Borg (b. 1937)


Black Lives Matter


Black Women’s Health Imperative


Black, Diane (b. 1951)


Blackburn, Marsha Wedgeworth (b.1952)


Blackmun, Harry Andrew (1908-1999)


Blackwell, Alice Stone (1857-1950)


Blades, Joan (b. 1956)


Blair, Emily Newell (1877-1951)


Blanco, Kathleen Babineaux (b. 1942)


Blatch, Harriot Eaton Stanton (1856-1940)


Blitch, Iris Faircloth (1912-1993)


Bloomer, Amelia Jenks (1818-1894)


Bloor, Ella Reeve Ware Cohen Omholt (Mother Bloor) (1862-1951)


Blunt Rochester, Lisa (B. 1962)


Boggs, Marie Corinne Morrison Claiborne (Lindy) (1916-2013)


Boland, Veronica Grace (1899-1982)


Bolin, Jane Matilda (1908-2007)


Bolton, Frances Payne Bingham (1885-1977)


Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)


Bonamici, Suzanne (b. 1954)


Bonney, Mary Lucinda (1816-1900)


Bonnin, Gertrude Simmons (aka Zitkala-äa, or Red Bird) (1876-1938)


Bono, Mary (b. 1961)


Bordallo, Madeleine Mary Zeien (b. 1933)


Bosone, Reva Zilpha Beck (1895-1983)


Bowe v. Colgate-Palmolive Company (1969)


Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)


Bowring, Eva Kelly (1892-1985)


Boxer, Barbara Levy (b. 1940)


Boyda, Nancy (b. 1955)


Bradwell v. Illinois (1873)


Bradwell, Myra Colby (1831-1894)


Brady, Sarah Jane Kemp (1942-2015)


Bravo, Ellen (b. 1944)


Bray v. Alexandria Clinic (1993)


Brazile, Donna Lease (b. 1959)


Brent, Margaret (ca. 1607-ca. 1671)


Brewer, Janice Kay (b. 1944)


Brooks, Susan (b. 1960)


Brown, Corrine (b. 1946)


Brown, Elaine (b. 1943)


Brown, Judie (b. 1944)


Brown, Kate (b. 1960)


Brown, Rita Mae (b. 1944)


Browner, Carol (b. 1955)


Brownley, Julia (b. 1952)


Brown-Waite, Virginia (Ginny) (b.1943)


Buchanan, Vera Daerr (1902-1955)


Burdick, Jocelyn Birch (b. 1922)


Burke, Perle Yvonne Watson Brathwaite (b. 1932)


Burke, Tarana (b. 1973)


Burlington Industries v. Ellerth (1998)


Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railway Co. v. White (2006)


Burton, Sala Galante (1925-1987)


Burwell, Sylvia Matthews (b. 1965)


Bush, Barbara Pierce (1925-2018)


Bush, Laura Welch (b. 1946)


Bushfield, Vera Cahalan (1889-1976)


Business and Professional Women/USA


Business and Professional Women’s Foundation


Bustos, Cheri (b. 1961)


Byrne, Leslie Larkin (b. 1946)


Byrne, Jane Margaret Burke (1934-2014)


Byron, Beverly Barton Butcher (b. 1932)


Byron, Katharine Edgar (1903-1976)


Cabinets, Women in Presidential


Cable Acts


Cahill, Mary Beth (b. 1954)


Califano v. Westcott (1979)


Calderón, Sila María (b. 1942)


Caldicott, Helen Broinowski (b. 1938)


Califano v. Goldfarb (1977)


California Federal Savings and Loan v. Guerra (1987)


Cammermeyer, Margarethe (b. 1942)


Campbell, Bonnie Jean Pierce (b. 1948)


Cantwell, Maria (b. 1958)


Capito, Shelley Moore (b. 1953)


Capps, Lois (b. 1938)


Caraway, Hattie Ophelia Wyatt (1878-1950)


Carey v. Population Services International (1977)


Carlson, Margaret Mary Bresnahan (b. ca. 1945)


Carnahan, Jean Carpenter (b. 1933)


Carpenter, Mary Elizabeth (Liz) Sutherland (1920-2010)


Carson, Julia May Porter (1938-2007)


Carson, Rachel Louise (1907-1964)


Carter, Eleanor Rosalynn Smith (b. 1927)


Castle Rock v. Gonzales (2005)


Castor, Kathy (b. 1966)


Castro, Ida L. (b. 1953)


Catholics for Choice


Catt, Carrie Clinton Lane Chapman (1859-1947)


Center for American Women and Politics


Chao, Elaine Lan (b. 1953)


Chavez, Linda (b. 1947)


Chavez-Thompson, Linda (b. 1944)


Cheney, Liz (b. 1966)


Chenoweth-Hage, Helen Palmer (1938-2006)


Child Day Care


Child Labor Amendment


Child Support Enforcement


Child, Lydia Maria Francis (1802-1880)


Children’s Bureau


Children’s Defense Fund


Chisholm, Shirley Anita St. Hill (1924-2005)


Christian Coalition of America


Christian-Christensen, Donna Marie (b. 1945)


Chu, Judy (b. 1953)


Church, Marguerite Stitt (1892-1990)


Citizens’ Advisory Council on the Status of Women


Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII


Civil Rights Act of 1991


Civil Rights Movement, Women in the


Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988


Clark Gray, Georgia Neese (1900-1995)


Clark, Katherine M. (b. 1963)


Clark, Septima Poinsette (1898-1987)


Clarke, Marian Williams (1880-1953)


Clarke, Yvette Diane (b. 1964)


Claybrook, Joan (b. 1937)


Clayton, Eva McPherson (b. 1934)


Cleaver, Kathleen Neal (b. 1945)


Cleveland Board of Education v. LaFleur (1974)


Clift, Eleanor (b. 1940)


Clinton v. Jones (1997)


Clinton, Hillary Diane Rodham (b. 1947)


Coalition for Women’s Appointments


Coalition of Labor Union Women


Code Pink


Coker v. Georgia (1977)


Colautti v. Franklin (1979)


Collins, Barbara-Rose (b. 1939)


Collins, Cardiss Hortense Robertson (1931-2013)


Collins, Martha Layne Hall (b. 1936)


Collins, Susan Margaret (b. 1952)


Colored Women’s League


Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional, Inc.


Commissions on the Status of Women


Communist Party, USA


Comparable Worth


Comstock, Barbara J. (b. 1959)


Concerned Women for America


Congress, Women in


Congressional Accountability Act of 1995


Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues


Congressional Union


Congresswomen’s Caucus


Consciousness Raising


Conservatism


Contreras-Sweet, Maria (b. 1955)


Conway, Kellyanne Elizabeth Fitzpatrick (b. 1967)


Corning Glass Works v. Brennan (1974)


Cortez Masto, Catherine Marie (b. 1964)


Costanza, Margaret (Midge) (1932-2010)


Coulter, Ann (b. 1961)


Council of Presidents


Council of Women World Leaders


County of Washington, Oregon v. Gunther (1981)


Coverture


Craig v. Boren (1976)


Craig, Angela (b. 1972)


Crisp, Mary Dent (1923-2007)


Croly, Jane Cunningham (1829-1901)


Crowley, Candy (b. 1948)


Cubin, Barbara Lynn (b. 1946)


Cullors, Patrisse (b. 1984)


Dahlkemper, Kathleen A. (Kathy) (b. 1957)


Danner, Patsy Ann Berrer (b. 1934)


Daughters of Bilitis


Daughters of Liberty


Davids, Sharice (b. 1980)


Davis, Angela Yvonne (b. 1944)


Davis, Jo Ann (1950-2007)


Davis, Susan A. (b. 1944)


Day Care Council of America


Day, Dorothy (1897-1980)


Dean, Madeleine (b. 1959)


Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions (1848)


Decter, Midge Rosenthal (b. 1927)


Deer, Ada Elizabeth (b. 1935)


DeGette, Diana Louise (b. 1957)


DeLauro, Rosa L. (b. 1943)


DelBene, Suzan (b. 1962)


Delta Sigma Theta Sorority


Demings, Valdez Butler (b.1957)


Democratic Party, Women in the


Dennett, Mary Coffin Ware (1872-1947)


DeVos, Betsy (b. 1958)


Dewson, Mary (Molly) Williams (1874-1962)


Diaz v. Pan American World Airways, Inc. (1971)


Dingell, Debbie (b. 1953)


Displaced Homemakers


DiVall, Linda (b. ca. 1953)


Divorce Law Reform


Dix, Dorothea Lynde (1802-1887)


Doe v. Bolton (1973)


Dole, (Mary) Elizabeth Hanford (b. 1936)


Domestic Violence


Dothard v. Rawlinson (1977)


Douglas, Emily Taft (1899-1994)


Douglas, Helen Mary Gahagan (1900-1980)


Douglass, Frederick (1818-1895)


Drake, Thelma Day (b. 1949)


Duckworth, Tammy (b. 1968)


Duniway, Abigail Jane Scott (1834-1915)


Dunn, Jennifer Blackburn (1941-2007)


Duren v. Missouri (1979)


Durr, Virginia Heard Foster (1903-1999)


Dworkin, Andrea Rita (1946-2005)


Dwyer, Florence Price (1902-1976)


Eagle Forum


East, Catherine Shipe (1916-1996)


Eastman, Crystal (1881-1928)


Echaveste, Maria (b. 1954)


Ecofeminism


Economic Equity Act


Edelman, Marian Wright (b. 1939)


Education Amendments of 1972, Title IX


Education, Women and


Edwards, Donna F. (b. 1958)


Edwards, Elaine Lucille Schwartzenburg (1929-2018)


Edwards, India Moffett (1895-1990)


Eisenhuth Alming, Laura J. Kelly (1858-1937)


Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972)


Elders, Joycelyn (b. 1933)


Ellmers, Renee (b. 1964)


Emerson, Jo Ann (b. 1950)


EMILY’s List


Employment Discrimination


English, Karan (b. 1949)


Equal Credit Opportunity Act of 1974


Equal Division Rule


Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972


Equal Pay Act of 1963


Equal Rights Amendment


Equal Rights Amendments, State


ERAmerica


Ernst, Joni (b. 1970)


Escobar, Veronica (b. 1969)


Eshoo, Anna Georges (b. 1942)


Eslick, Willa McCord Blake (1878-1961)


Esty, Elizabeth Henderson (b. 1959)


Evans, Jodie (b. 1954)


Evers-Williams, Myrlie Louise Beasley (b. 1933)


Executive Order 10980


Executive Order 11126


Executive Order 11246


Executive Order 11375


Fallin, Mary (b. 1954)


Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993


Farenthold, Frances (Sissy) Talton (b. 1926)


Farrington, Mary Elizabeth Pruett (1898-1984)


Fauset, Crystal Dreda Bird (1894-1965)


Federal Women’s Program


Federally Employed Women


Feinstein, Dianne Goldman (b. 1933)


Felton, Rebecca Ann Latimer (1835-1930)


The Feminine Mystique


Feminist Majority Foundation


Feminist Movement


Feministing.com


Feminists for Life of America


Feminization of Poverty


Fenwick, Millicent Hammond (1910-1992)


Ferguson v. City of Charleston (2001)


Ferguson, Miriam Amanda Wallace (1875-1961)


Ferraro, Geraldine Anne (1935-2011)


Fiedler, Roberta (Bobbi) Frances Horowitz (b. 1937)


Fifteenth Amendment


Finkenauer, Abby (b. 1988)


Finney, Joan Marie McInroy (1925-2001)


Fischer, Deb (b. 1951)


Fletcher, Elizabeth (b. 1975)


Flint Auto Workers’ Strike


Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley (1890-1964)


Fonda, Jane Seymour (b. 1937)


Ford, Elizabeth Ann (Betty) Bloomer (1918-2011)


Fourteenth Amendment


Fowler, Tillie Kidd (1942-2005)


Foxx, Virginia Ann (b. 1943)


Frahm, Sheila Sloan (b. 1945)


Frankel, Lois (b. 1948)


Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992)


Franklin, Barbara Hackman (b. 1940)


Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act of 1994


Friedan, Betty Naomi Goldstein (1921-2006)


Frontiero v. Richardson (1973)


Fudge, Marcia L. (b. 1952)


Fulani, Lenora Branch (b. ca. 1950)


Fuller, Margaret (1810-1850)


Fulmer, Willa Lybrand (1884-1968)


Furse, Elizabeth (b. 1936)


Futrell, Mary Alice Franklin Hatwood (b. 1940)


Gabbard, Tulsi (b. 1981)


Gage, Matilda Joslyn (1826-1898)


Garcia, Sylvia (b. 1950)


Garza, Alicia (b. 1981)


Gasque Van Exem, Elizabeth Mills Hawley (1886-1989)


Geduldig v. Aiello (1974)


Gender Gap


General Electric v. Gilbert (1976)


General Federation of Women’s Clubs


Gibbs, Florence Reville (1890-1964)


Gibbs, Lois Marie Conn (b. 1951)


Giffords, Gabrielle (b. 1970)


Gillibrand, Kirsten (b. 1966)


Gilman, Charlotte Perkins (1860-1935)


Ginsburg, Ruth Joan Bader (b. 1933)


Glaser, Vera (1916-2008)


Glass Ceiling Commission


Godwin, Mary Wollstonecraft


Goesaert v. Cleary (1948)


Goldman, Emma (1869-1940)


Gonzales, Attorney General v. Carhart et al. (2007)


González-Colón, Jenniffer (b. 1976)


Goodman, Amy (b. 1957)


Goodwin, Doris Kearns (b. 1943)


Governors, Women


Graham, Gwendolyn (Gwen) (b. 1963)


Granahan, Kathryn Elizabeth O’Hay (1894-1979)


Granger, Kay (b. 1943)


Granholm, Jennifer Mulhern (b. 1959)


Grasso, Ella Rosa Giovanna Oliva Tambussi (1919-1981)


Gratz et al. v. Bollinger (2003)


Graves, Dixie Bibb (1882-1965)


Green Party USA


Green, Edith Louise Starrett (1910-1987)


Greene Mickelson, Enid (b. 1958)


Greenway King, Isabella Selmes (1886-1953)


Gregoire, Christine O’Grady (b. 1947)


Griffiths, Martha Edna Wright (1912-2003)


Grimké, Angelina Emily (1805-1879) and Sarah Moore (1792-1873)


Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)


Grove City College v. Bell (1984)


Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)


Guinier, Carol Lani (b. 1950)


H. L. v. Matheson (1984)


Haaland, Debra (b. 1960)


Hagan, Kay R. (b. 1953)


Hahn, Janice (b. 1952)


Haley, Nimrata (Nikki) Randhawa (b. 1972)


Hall, Katie Beatrice Green (1938-2012)


Halvorson, Deborah L. DeFrancesco (b. 1958)


Hamer, Fannie Lou Townsend (1917-1977)


Hanabusa, Colleen (b. 1951)


Handel, Karen (b.1962)


Hansen, Julia Caroline Butler (1907-1988)


Harden, Cecil Murray (1894-1984)


Harman, Jane Frank (b. 1945)


Harris v. Forklift Systems (1993)


Harris v. McRae (1980)


Harris, Kamala Devi (b. 1964)


Harris, Katherine (b. 1957)


Harris, LaDonna (b. 1931)


Harris, Patricia Roberts (1924-1985)


Harriman, Pamela Beryl Digby Churchill Hayward (1920-1997)


Hart, Melissa Anne (b. 1962)


Hartzler, Vicky (b. 1960)


Hassan, Margaret (Maggie) Wood (b. 1958)


Hawkins, Paula Fickes (1927-2009)


Hayes, Jahana (b. 1973)


Hayworth, Nan (b. 1959)


Health Care, Women and


Heckler, Margaret Mary O’Shaughnessy (b. 1931)


Height, Dorothy Irene (1912-2010)


Heitkamp, Mary Kathryn (Heidi) (b. 1955)


Henderson, Hazel Mustard (b. 1933)


Herman, Alexis Margaret (b. 1947)


Hernandez, Aileen Clarke (1926-2017)


Herrera Beutler, Jaime (b. 1978)


Herseth Sandlin, Stephanie (b. 1970)


Hicks, (Anna) Louise Day (1916-2003)


Hill, Anita Faye (b. 1956)


Hill, Julia “Butterfly” (b. 1974)


Hill, Katie (b. 1987)


Hills, Carla Helen Anderson (b. 1934)


Hirono, Mazie K. (b. 1947)


Hishon v. King and Spalding (1984)


Hobby, Oveta Culp (1905-1995)


Hochul, Kathleen C. (b. 1958)


Hodgson v. Minnesota (1990)


Hoff, Joan (b. 1939)


Hollister, Nancy Putnam (b. 1949)


Holt, Marjorie Sewell (1920-2018)


Holtzman, Elizabeth (b. 1941)


Honeyman, Nan Wood (1881-1970)


hooks, bell (née Gloria Watkins) (b. 1952)


Hooley, Darlene (b. 1939)


Horn, Joan Kelly (b. 1936)


Horn, Kendra (1976)


Houlahan, Christina (Chrissy) (b. 1967)


Howe, Julia Ward (1819-1910)


Hoyt v. Florida (1961)


Huck, Winnifred Sprague Mason (1882-1936)


Huerta, Dolores Clara Fernandez (b. 1930)


Huffington, Arianna Stassinopoulos (b. 1950)


Hufstedler, Shirley Ann Mount (1925-2016)


Hughes, Karen Parfitt (b. 1956)


Hull, Jane Dee Bowersock (b. 1935)


Human Trafficking


Humphrey Brown, Muriel Fay Buck (1912-1998)


Hurley, Ruby (1909-1980)


Hutchinson, Anne Marbury (1591-1643)


Hutchison, Kathryn (Kay) Ann Bailey (b. 1943)


Hyde, Henry John (1924-2007)


Hyde-Smith, Cindy (b. 1959)


Ifill, Gwen (1955-2016)


Independent Women’s Forum


Ireland, Patricia (b. 1945)


Ivey, Kay (b. 1944)


Ivins, Molly Tyler (1944-2007)


J.E.B. v. Alabama ex rel T.B. (1994)


Jackson Lee, Sheila (b. 1950)


Jackson, Lisa (b. 1962)


Jarrett, Valerie Bowman (b. 1956)


Jayapal, Pramila (b. 1965)


Jenckes, Virginia Ellis (1877-1975)


Jenkins, Lynn (b. 1963)


Jewell, Sally (b. 1956)


Johnson v. Transportation Agency of Santa Clara County (1987)


Johnson, Eddie Bernice (b. 1935)


Johnson, Claudia Alta (Lady Bird) Taylor (1912-2007)


Johnson, Nancy Lee (b. 1935)


Jones, Brenda (b.1959)


Jones, Elaine R. (b. 1944)


Jones, Stephanie Tubbs (1949-2008)


Jordan, Barbara Charline (1936-1996)


Judges, Women


Jumper, Betty Mae Tiger (1923-2011)


Juneau, Denise (b. 1967)


Juries, Women on


Kagan, Elena (b. 1960)


Kahn, Florence Prag (1868-1948)


Kaptur, Marcia (Marcy) Carolyn (b. 1946)


Kassebaum Baker, Nancy Landon (b. 1932)


Kee, Maude Elizabeth Simpkins (1895-1975)


Kelley, Florence (1859-1932)


Kelly, Edna Patricia Kathleen Flannery (1906-1997)


Kelly, Laura (b. 1950)


Kelly, Robin L. (b. 1956)


Kelly, Sue W. (b. 1936)


Kennedy, Claudia Jean (b. 1947)


Kennedy, Florynce Rae (1916-2000)


Kennedy, Jacqueline Bouvier


Kennelly, Barbara Bailey (b. 1936)


Keys, Martha Elizabeth Ludwig (b. 1930)


Kilpatrick, Carolyn Jean Cheeks (b. 1945)


Kilroy, Mary Jo (b. 1949)


King, Coretta Scott (1927-2006)


King, Mary Elizabeth (b. 1940)


Kirchberg v. Feenstra (1981)


Kirkpatrick, Ann (b.1950)


Kirkpatrick, Jeane Duane Jordan (1926-2006)


Kissling, Frances (b. 1943)


Klobuchar, Amy (b. 1960)


Knutson, Coya Gjesdal (1912-1996)


Koontz, Elizabeth Duncan (1919-1989)


Kosmas, Suzanne McDonald (b. 1944)


Kreps, Juanita Morris (1921-2010)


Kuhn, Margaret (Maggie) E. (1905-1995)


Kumar, Maria Teresa (b. 1974)


Kunin, Madeleine May (b. 1933)


Kuster, Ann McLane (b. 1956)


La Flesche, Susette (1854-1903)


Lachance, Janice Rachel (b. 1953)


LaDuke, Winona (b. 1959)


Lake, Celinda (b. 1953)


Lampkin, Daisy Elizabeth Adams (ca. 1884-1965)


Landes, Bertha Ethel Knight (1868-1943)


Landrieu, Mary (b. 1955)


Langley, Katherine Gudger (1888-1948)


Lathrop, Julia (1858-1932)


Lawrence Textile Mill Strike


Lawrence, Brenda L. (b. 1954)


League of Women Voters


Lease, Mary Elizabeth Clyens (1850-1933)


Ledbetter, Lilly (b. 1938)


Lee, Barbara (b. 1946)


Lee, Susie (b. 1966)


Lesbian Rights


Lesko, Debbie (b. 1958)


Lewis, Ann Frank (b. 1937)


Liasson, Mara (b. 1955)


Liberalism


Lightfoot, Lori E. (b. 1962)


Liliuokalani (1838-1917)


Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009


Lilly M. Ledbetter, Petitioner v. The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Inc. (2007)


Lincoln, Blanche Lambert (b. 1960)


Lingle, Linda Cutter (b. ca. 1953)


Liswood, Laura (b. 1950)


Lloyd Bouquard, Rachel Marilyn Laird (1929-2018)


Lockwood, Belva Ann Bennett McNall (1830-1917)


Lofgren, Zoe (b. 1947)


Long Island Care at Home, Ltd. v. Coke 127 S. Ct. 2339 (2007)


Long Thompson, Jill Lynnette (b. 1952)


Long, Catherine Small (b. 1924)


Long, Rose McConnell (1892-1970)


Los Angeles Department of Water and Power v. Manhart (1978)


Louchheim, Kathleen (Katie) Scofield (1903-1991)


Love, Ludmya Bourdeau (Mia) (b. 1975)


Lowey, Nita Melnikoff (b. 1937)


Luce, Clare Boothe (1903-1987)


Lujan Grisham, Michelle (b. 1959)


Lummis, Cynthia (b. 1954)


Luria, Elaine (b. 1975)


Lusk, Georgia Lee Witt (1893-1971)


Lynch, Loretta Elizabeth (b. 1959)


Lyon, Phyllis (b. 1924)


MacKinnon, Catharine Alice (b. 1946)


Madar, Olga Marie (1916-1996)


Maher v. Roe (1977)


Majette, Denise L. (b.1955)


Malcolm, Ellen Reighley (b. 1947)


Maloney, Carolyn Bosher (b. 1948)


MANA, a National Latina Organization


Mankiller, Wilma Pearl (1945-2010)


Mankin, Helen Douglas (1894-1956)


Margolies-Mezvinsky, Marjorie (b. 1942)


Marin, Rosario (b. 1958)


Markey, Betsy (b.1956)


Married Women’s Property Acts


Martin, Dorothy Taliaferro “Del” (1921-2008)


Martin, Judith Lynn Morley (b. 1939)


Martin, Marion E. (1900-1987)


Martinez, Susana (b. 1959)


Martz, Judy (b. 1943)


Matalin, Mary Joe (b. 1953)


Matsui, Doris Okada (b. 1944)


May, Catherine Dean Barnes (1914-2004)


McBath, Lucy (b. 1960)


McCabe, Jewell Jackson (b. 1945)


McCarthy, Carolyn (b. 1944)


McCarthy, Gina (b. 1954)


McCarthy, Karen (1947-2010)


McCarty v. McCarty (1980)


McCaskill, Claire (b. 1953)


McCollum, Betty (b. 1954)


McCormack, Ellen (née Eleanor Rose) Cullen (1926-2011)


McCormick Simms, Ruth Hanna (1880-1944)


McKinney, Cynthia Ann (b. 1955)


McLaughlin Korologos, Ann Dore Lauenstein (b. 1941)


McMahon, Linda E. (b. 1948)


McMillan, Clara Gooding (1894-1976)


McMorris Rodgers, Cathy Anne (b. 1969)


McSally, Martha (b. 1966)


Meek, Carrie Pittman (b. 1926)


Meissner, Doris Marie (b. 1941)


Meng, Grace (b. 1975)


Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson (1986)


#metoo


Meyers, Jan Lenore Crilly (b. 1928)


Meyner, Helen Day Stevenson (1929-1997)


Mifepristone (RU-486)


Mikulski, Barbara Ann (b. 1936)


Military, Women in the


Millender-McDonald, Juanita (1938-2007)


Miller, Candice S. (b. 1954)


Miller, Carol (b. 1950)


Miller, Laura (b. 1958)


Millett, Katherine (Kate) Murray (1934-2017)


Mills, Janet Trafton (b. 1947)


Mills, Karen Gordon (b. 1953)


Mink, Patsy Matsu Takemoto (1927-2002)


Minner, Ruth Ann Coverdale (b. 1935)


Minor v. Happersett (1875)


Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan (1982)


Mofford, Rose Perica (1922-2016)


Molinari, Susan (b. 1958)


Moore, Gwendolynne S. (b. 1951)


Moore, Minyon (b. 1958)


Morella, Constance Albanese (b. 1931)


Moseley Braun, Carol (b. 1947)


Moskowitz, Belle Lindner Israels (1877-1933)


Motley, Constance Baker (1921-2005)


Mott, Lucretia Coffin (1793-1880)


Ms. Foundation for Women


Ms. Magazine


Mucarsel-Powell, Debbie (b. 1971)


Muller v. Oregon (1908)


Munoz, Cecilia (b. 1962)


Murkowski, Lisa (b. 1957)


Murphy, Stephanie (b.1978)


Murray, Patty Johns (b. 1950)


Murray, Pauli (1910-1985)


Musgrave, Marilyn N. (b. 1949)


Myers, Margaret Jane (Dee Dee) (b. 1961)


Myrick, Sue (b. 1941)


9to5, National Association of Working Women


National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc.


Napolitano, Grace Flores (b. 1936)


Napolitano, Janet Ann (b. 1957)


NARAL Pro-Choice America


Nashville Gas Co. v. Satty (1977)


National Advisory Committee for Women


National American Woman Suffrage Association


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Women in the


National Association of Commissions for Women


National Center for Lesbian Rights


National Coalition Against Domestic Violence


National Coalition of 100 Black Women


National Commission on the Observance of International Women’s Year, 1975


National Committee on Pay Equity


National Committee to Defeat the UnEqual Rights Amendment


National Conference of Puerto Rican Women


National Congress of Black Women


National Consumers League


National Council of Jewish Women


National Council of Negro Women


National Federation of Afro-American Women


National Federation of Republican Women


National Gender Balance Project USA


National League of Republican Colored Women


National Organization for Women


National Organization of Black Elected Legislative Women


National Right to Life Committee


National Welfare Rights Organization


National Woman Suffrage Association


National Woman’s Loyal League


National Woman’s Party


National Women’s Conference Committee


National Women’s Conference


National Women’s Law Center


National Women’s Political Caucus


Natividad, Irene (b. 1948)


Navarro, Ana (b. 1971)


Negrete McLeod, Gloria (b. 1941)


Neuberger, Maurine Brown (1907-2000)


New York Radical Women


News Media, Women Politicians and


Nielsen, Kirstjen Michele (b. 1972)


Nineteenth Amendment


Nixon, Patricia Ryan (1912-1993)


Noem, Kristi (b. 1971)


Nolan, Mae Ella Hunt (1886-1973)


Norrell, Catherine Dorris (1901-1981)


Northup, Anne Meagher (b. 1948)


Norton, Eleanor Holmes (b. 1937)


Norton, Gale (b. 1954)


Norton, Mary Teresa Hopkins (1875-1959)


Novello, Antonia Coello (b. 1944)


NOW v. Scheidler (1994) (2003) (2006)


Nussbaum, Karen (b. 1950)


Volume 2: O–Z



Oakar, Mary Rose (b. 1940)


Obama, Michelle Robinson (b. 1964)


O’Beirne, Kate (1949-2017)


Ocasio-Cortez, Alexandria (b. 1989)


O’Connor, Sandra Day (b. 1930)


O’Day, Caroline Love Goodwin (1875-1943)


Office of Women’s Initiatives and Outreach


O’Hare, Kathleen Richards (1876-1948)


Ohio v. Akron Center (1990)


O’Laughlin, Kathryn Ellen McCarthy (1894-1952)


Oldfield, Pearl Peden (1876-1962)


O’Leary, Hazel Rollins (b. 1937)


Omar, Ilhan (b. 1981)


Onassis, Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy (1929-1994)


Operation Rescue


Organizacion en California de Lideres Campesinas


Orr v. Orr (1979)


Orr, Kay Avonne Stark (b. 1939)


Ortega, Katherine Davalos (b. 1934)


Owen Rohde, Ruth Bryan (1885-1954)


Palin, Sarah (b. 1964)


Park, Maud Wood (1871-1955)


Parker, Annise (b. 1956)


Parks, Rosa Louise McCauley (1913-2005)


Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003


Patterson, Elizabeth Johnston (1939-2018)


Paul, Alice (1885-1977)


Pay Equity


Peace Movement


Pelosi, Nancy B. (b. 1940)


Pennsylvania State Police v. Suders (2004)


Perdue, Beverly M. (b. 1947)


Perkins, Frances (Fanny) Corlie (1882-1965)


Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996


Personnel Administrator of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Feeney (1979)


Peters, Mary E. (b. 1948)


Peterson, Esther (1906-1997)


Pettis Roberson, Shirley Neil McCumber (1924-2016)


Pfost, Gracie Bowers (1906-1965)


Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corporation (1971)


Pingree, Chellie Johnson (b. 1955)


Pittsburgh Press Co. v. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations (1973)


Planned Parenthood Association of Kansas City, Mo. v. Ashcroft (1983)


Planned Parenthood Federation of America


Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth (1976)


Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992)


Plaskett, Stacey E. (b. 1966)


Poelker v. Doe (1977)


Pornography


Porter, Katie (b. 1974)


Poverty


Power, Samantha (b. 1970)


Pratt, Eliza Jane (1902-1981)


Pratt, Ruth Sears Baker (1877-1965)


Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978


President and Vice President, Women Candidates for


President’s Commission on the Status of Women


President’s Interagency Council on Women


President’s Task Force on Women’s Rights and Responsibilities


Pressley, Ayanna (b. 1974)


Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins (1989)


Priest, Ivy Maude Baker (1905-1975)


Pritzker, Penny (b. 1956)


Progressive Party, Women in the


Pro-Life Action League


Protective Legislation


Pryce, Deborah D. (b. 1951)


Public Offices, Women Elected to


Public Speaking


Pyle, Gladys (1890-1989)


Quaker Women


Quinton, Amelia Stone (1833-1926)


Racial Discrimination


Radewagen, Amata Catherine Coleman (b. 1947)


Radicalesbians


Raimondo, Gina M (b. 1971)


Rankin, Jeannette Pickering (1880-1973)


Rape


Ray, Dixy Lee (1914-1994)


Reagan, Anne Francis “Nancy” Robbins Davis (1921-2016)


Redstockings


Reece, Louise Goff (1898-1970)


Reed v. Reed (1971)


Reid, Charlotte Leota Thompson (1913-2007)


Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice


Rell, M. Jodi (b. 1946)


Reno, Janet (1938-2016)


Reproductive Rights


Republican Party, Women in the


Republicans for Choice


Reynolds, Kim (b. 1959)


Rice, Condoleezza (b. 1954)


Rice, Kathleen Maura (b. 1965)


Rice, Susan E. (b. 1964)


Richards, Ann Willis (1933-2006)


Richards, Cecile (b. 1957)


Richardson, Laura (b. 1962)


Riley, Corrine Boyd (1893-1979)


Rivers, Lynn Nancy (b. 1956)


Rivlin, Alice Mitchell (b. 1931-2019)


Roberts v. United States Jaycees (1984)


Roberts, Barbara Hughey (b. 1936)


Roberts, Mary Martha Corinne Morrison Claiborne Boggs (Cokie) (b. 1943)


Robertson, Alice Mary (1854-1931)


Robinson, Ruby Doris Smith (1942-1967)


Roby, Martha (b. 1976)


Roe v. Wade (1973)


Rogers, Edith Frances Nourse (1881-1960)


Romer, Christina (b. 1958)


Roosevelt, Eleanor (1884-1962)


Rosen, Jacklyn Sheryl (Jacky) (b. 1957)


Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana (b. 1952)


Ross, Nellie Tayloe (1876-1977)


Rostker v. Goldberg (1981)


Roukema, Margaret Scafati (1929-2014)


Roy, Vesta M. (1925-2002)


Roybal-Allard, Lucille (b. 1941)


Ruffin, Josephine St. Pierre (1842-1924)


Rust v. Sullivan (1991)


Saiki, Patricia Fukuda (b. 1930)


Salter, Susanna Madora Kinsey (1860-1961)


Sánchez, Linda T. (b. 1969)


Sanchez, Loretta (b. 1960)


Sanders, Sarah Huckabee (b. 1982)


Sanger, Margaret Louise Higgins (1879-1966)


Sayles Belton, Sharon (b. 1951)


Scanlon, Mary Gay (b.1959)


Schakowsky, Janice D. (b. 1944)


Schenk, Lynn (b. 1945)


Schlafly, Phyllis Stewart (1924-2016)


Schmidt, Jean (b.1951)


Schneider, Claudine Cmarada (b. 1947)


Schrier, Kim (b. 1968)


Schroeder, Patricia Nell Scott (b. 1940)


Schwab, Susan C. (b. 1955)


Schwartz, Allyson Y. (b. 1948)


Seastrand, Andrea Ciszek (b. 1941)


Sebelius, Kathleen Gilligan (b. 1948)


Sekula Gibbs, Shelley


Seneca Falls Convention


Separate Spheres


Sewell, Terri (b. 1965)


Sex Discrimination


Sexual Harassment


Shabazz, Hajj Bahiyah (Betty) Sanders (1936-1997)


Shaheen, Jeanne (b. 1947)


Shalala, Donna Edna (b. 1941)


Shaw, Anna Howard (1847-1919)


Shea-Porter, Carol (b. 1952)


Shepherd, Karen (b. 1940)


Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act of 1921


Sherrill, Mikie (b. 1972)


Shirtwaist Workers Strike


Simmons, Althea T. L. (1924-1990)


Simpson, Edna Oakes (1891-1984)


Sinema, Kyrsten (b. 1976)


Slaughter, Louise McIntosh (1929-2018)


Slotkin, Elissa (b. 1976)


Smeal, Eleanor Cutri (b. 1939)


Smith, Howard Worth (1883-1976)


Smith, Linda Ann Simpson (b. 1950)


Smith, Margaret Madeline Chase (1897-1995)


Smith, Mary Louise (1914-1997)


Smith, Tina (b. 1958)


Smith, Virginia Dodd (1911-2006)


Snowe, Olympia Jean Bouchles (b. 1947)


Social Security


Socialism


Solis, Hilda (b. 1957)


Sotomayor, Sonia (b. 1954)


Spanberger, Abigail (b. 1979)


Speier, Karen Lorraine Jacqueline (Jackie) (b. 1950)


Spellings, Margaret Dudar La Montagne (b. 1957)


Spellman, Gladys Blossom Noon (1918-1988)


Spider Web


St. George, Katharine Delano Price Collier (1894-1983)


Stabenow, Deborah Ann (b. 1950)


Stalking


Stanley, Winifred Claire (1909-1996)


Stanton v. Stanton (1975)


Stanton, Elizabeth Cady (1815-1902)


State Legislatures, Women in


Stefanik, Elise M. (b. 1984)


Steinem, Gloria Marie (b. 1934)


Stenberg, Attorney General of Nebraska, et al. v. Carhart (2000)


Stevens, Haley (b. 1983)


Stewart, Maria W. (1803-1879)


Stone, Lucy (1818-1893)


Stop ERA


Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher (1811-1896)


Strauder v. West Virginia (1879)


Strauss, Annette Greenfield (1924-1998)


Suffrage


Sullivan, Leonor Kretzer (1902-1988)


Sumner, Jessie (1898-1994)


Susan B. Anthony List


Sutton, Betty (b. 1963)


Swift, Jane (b. 1965)


Talbert, Mary Morris Burnett (1866-1923)


Tauscher, Ellen O’Kane (b. 1951)


Taylor v. Louisiana (1975)


Tea Party


Temperance Movement, Women in the


Tenney, Claudia (b. 1961)


Terrell, Mary Eliza Church (1863-1954)


Thomas, Helen Amelia (1920-2013)


Thomas, Lera Millard (1900-1993)


Thompson, Ruth (1887-1970)


Thornburgh v. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (1986)


Thurman, Karen Loveland (b. 1951)


Titus, Alice Constandina (Dina) (b. 1950)


Tlaib, Rashida (b. 1976)


Tometi, Opal (b. 1984)


Torres Small, Xochitl (b. 1984)


Torres, Norma Judith (b. 1965)


Trahan, Lori (b. 1973)


Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire


Truth, Sojourner (ca. 1797-1883)


Tsongas, Nicola S. (Niki) (b. 1946)


Tubman, Harriet (ca. 1820-1913)


Tyson, Laura D’Andrea (b. 1947)


UAW v. Johnson Controls (1991)


Underwood, Lauren (b. 1986)


United States v. Morrison (2000)


United States v. Virginia (1996)


University of California Regents v. Bakke (1978)


Unsoeld, Jolene Bishoprick (b. 1931)


Upton, Harriet Taylor (1853-1945)


Vaid, Urvashi (b. 1958)


Velázquez, Nydia Margarita (b. 1953)


Veneman, Ann (b. 1949)


Veterans’ Preference


Vilmain, Teresa (b. 1958)


Violence Against Women Act of 1994, 2000, and 2005


Violence Against Women Office


Voting Rights Act of 1965


Vucanovich, Barbara Farrell (1921-2013)


Wagner, Ann (b. 1962)


Wald, Lillian D. (1867-1940)


Waldholtz, Enid Greene


Walker, Olene (1930-2015)


Wallace, Lurleen Burns (1926-1968)


Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Dukes et al. (2011)


Walorski, Jackie (b. 1963)


Walters, Mimi (b. 1962)


Warren, Elizabeth (b. 1949)


Wasserman Schultz, Debbie (b. 1966)


Waters, Maxine Moore Carr (b. 1938)


Watson Coleman, Bonnie (b. 1945)


Watson, Barbara Mae (1918-1983)


Watson, Diane Edith (b. 1933)


Wattleton, Alyce Faye (b. 1943)


Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)


Weddington, Sarah Ragle (b. 1945)


Weeks v. Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company (1969)


Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld (1975)


Weis, Jessica McCullough (1901-1963)


Welfare


Wells-Barnett, Ida Bell (1862-1931)


West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish (1937)


Westwood, Frances Jean Miles (1923-1997)


Wexler, Anne Levy (1930-2009)


Wexton, Jennifer (b. 1968)


White House Council on Women and Girls


Whitman, Christine Todd (b. 1946)


Whitmer, Gretchen (b. 1971)


Whitmire, Kathryn Jean (b. 1946)


Widnall, Sheila Evans (b. 1938)


Wild, Susan (b. 1957)


Willard, Frances Elizabeth Caroline (1839-1898)


Willebrandt, Mabel Walker (1889-1963)


Williams v. Zbaraz (1980)


Wilson, Diane (b. ca. 1949)


Wilson, Edith Bolling Galt (1872-1961)


Wilson, Frederica (b. 1942)


Wilson, Heather (b. 1960)


Wingo, Effiegene Locke (1883-1962)


WISH List


Wollstonecraft, Mary (1759-1797)


Woman’s Christian Temperance Union


Woman’s National Loyal League


Woman’s Peace Party


Women in Apprenticeship and Nontraditional Occupations Act of 1992


Women of Color Policy Network


Women Strike for Peace


Women Under Forty Political Action Committee


Women Work! The National Network for Women’s Employment


WomenHeart: The National Coalition for Women with Heart Disease


Women’s Action for New Directions


Women’s Bureau


Women’s Campaign Fund


Women’s Congressional Policy Institute


Women’s Educational Equity Act of 1974


Women’s Equity Action League


Women’s Health Equity Act


Women’s Health, Office of Research on


Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom


Women’s Joint Congressional Committee


Women’s Liberation Movement


Women’s March


Women’s Political Council


Women’s Political Union


Women’s Trade Union League


Woodhouse, Chase Going (1890-1984)


Woodhull, Victoria Claflin (1838-1927)


Woodruff, Judy Carline (b. 1946)


Woolsey, Lynn (b. 1937)


Wright, Frances (Fanny) (1795-1852)


Year of the Woman


Yellen, Janet L. (b. 1946)


#YouKnowMe


YWCA of the USA


Zeilinger, Julie (b. 1993)


Appendix 1: Documents


Women’s Rights


Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions


Speech After Being Convicted of Voting in the 1872 Presidential Election


Birth Control-A Parents’ Problem or Woman’s?


Equal Rights for Women


National Women’s Conference Plan of Action


Address to Feminists for Life of America


Eyewitness: Beating the Bra Burners


Incrementalism Versus the Ketchup Bottle: Women’s Progress in Politics


So Much We Can Do: A Nation of Leaders


Women’s March Agenda 2019


Political Parties and Agendas


I Announce Myself As A Candidate for the Presidency


The Problem That Has No Name


Chicanas Speak Out. Women: New Voices of La Raza


A New Beginning: A New Dedication


Educating the Black Child: Our Past and Our Future


The Indigenous Women’s Network: Our Future, Our Responsibility


It’s the Family, Stupid!


Address to the Democratic National Convention


Acceptance Speech at the Republication National Convention


Racism and Discrimination


Child Labor and Woman Suffrage


What It Means to be Colored in the Capital of the U.S.


Seeking a Link with the Past


Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972


Dolores Huerta Talks


Sexual Harassment: The Nature of the Beast


Statement on Equal Pay Day


The Changing Face of Rural Communities


Presidential Appointees


Remarks to the First National Summit on the Advancement of Girls in Math and Science


Announcements: Women’s Contracting Rule and National Women’s Business Council Chair


Bridging Connection Technologies and Sustainable Development


Women in the Military


Should Women be Barred from Combat Positions?


Defense Department Expands Women’s Combat Role


DoD Releases Annual Report on Sexual Assault in Military


Appendix 2: Facts and Statistics


Table A.1 Number of Women in Congress


Table A.2 Women of Color in Elective Office 1965-2019


Table A.3 Women in Congressional Leadership Roles


Table A.4 Women Appointed to Cabinet Positions


Table A.5 Women in State Legislatures (1895-2019)


Table A.6 History of Women Governors


Table A.7 Firsts for Women in U.S. Politics (1848-2019)


Table A.8 Firsts for Women in the Law Profession and the Courts (1869-2015)


Chronology


Bibliography