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Great Events from History: The Middle Ages, 477-1453

Table of Contents

Confucianism Arrives in Japan



White Huns Raid India



Baptism of Clovis



Rise of Swahili Cultures



Tiwanaku Civilization Flourishes in Andean Highlands



Sogdians Dominate Central Asian Trade



Alaric II Drafts the Breviarum Alarici



Imprisonment and Death of Boethius



Justinian’s Code Is Compiled



Building of Hagia Sophia



Buddhism Arrives in Japan



Silk Worms Are Smuggled to the Byzantine Empire



Sāsānians and Turks Defeat the White Huns



Lombard Conquest of Italy



Sui Dynasty Reunifies China



Reforms of Pope Gregory the Great



Regency of Shōtoku Taishi



Invention of Decimals and Negative Numbers



See of Canterbury Is Established



El Tajín Is Built



Maya Build Astronomical Observatory at Palenque



Papermaking Spreads to Korea, Japan, and Central Asia



Mogollons Establish Agricultural Settlements



Building of the Grand Canal



National University Awards First Doctorate



Reign of Harṣa of Kanauj



Japan Sends Embassies to China



Muḥammad Receives Revelations



Reign of Pulakeśin II



Founding of the Tang Dynasty



Reign of Songtsen Gampo



Pilgrimage of Xuanzang



Reign of Narasiṃhavarman I Mahāmalla



Islam Expands Throughout North Africa



Founding of Lindisfarne and Creation of the Book of Kells



Battle of Yarmūk



Islam Expands Throughout the Middle East



Adoption of Nengo System and Taika Reforms



Christian Nubia and Muslim Egypt Sign Treaty



Silla Unification of Korea



Martyrdom of Prophet’s Grandson ḥusayn



Expansion of Śrivijaya



Building of the Dome of the Rock



Reign of Empress Wu



Bow and Arrow Spread into North America



Building of Chichén Itzá



Heavy Plow Helps Increase Agricultural Yields



Settlement of the South Pacific Islands



Confederation of Thai Tribes



Cahokia Becomes the First North American City



Hohokam Adapt to the Desert Southwest



Taihō Laws Reform Japanese Government



Construction of the Kāilaśanātha Temple



Ṭārik Crosses into Spain



Writing of Kojiki and Nihon Shoki



First Newspapers in China



Iconoclastic Controversy



Founding of Nanzhao



Rise of the Pratihāras



Bede Writes Ecclesiastical History of the English People



Battle of Tours



Christianity Is Introduced into Germany



Khazars Convert to Judaism



Uighur Turks Rule Central Asia



Rise and Fall of Ghana



Battle of Talas River



Coronation of Pépin the Short



Rebellion of An Lushan



Tibetans Capture Chang’an



Reign of Dharmapāla



Building of Borobuḍur



Beginning of the Harem System



Rise of the Sailendra Family



Alcuin Becomes Adviser to Charlemagne



Reign of Hārūn al-Rashīd



Śaṅkara Expounds Advaita VedĀnta



Buddhism Becomes Tibetan State Religion



Rise of the Samurai



Norse Raid Lindisfarne Monastery



Heian Period



Kana Syllabary Is Developed



Mississippian Mound-Building Culture Flourishes



Rise of the Toutswe Kingdom



Plains Village Culture Flourishes



Founding of the Khmer Empire



First Islamic Public Hospital



Nanzhao Subjugates Pyu



Gypsies Expelled from Persia



Tibetan Empire Dissolves



Uighur Migrations



Treaty of Verdun



Suppression of Buddhism



Invention of Gunpowder and Guns



Development of Slavic Alphabet



Viking Era



Foundation of Chan Chan



Rise of the Fujiwara Family



Nanzhao Captures Hanoi



Boris Converts to Christianity



First Book Printed



Zanj Revolt of African Slaves



Publication of the History of al-Ṭabarī



Indravarman I Conquers the Thai and the Mons



Alfred Defeats the Danes



Magyars Invade Italy, Saxony, and Bavaria



Beginning of Bulgaria’s Golden Age



Qarakhanids Convert to Islam



First Hausa State Established



Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms



Parāntaka I Conquers Pāṇḍya



Foundation of the Koryŏ Dynasty



Compilation of the Engi shiki



Khitans Settle Near Beijing



Reign of Ngo Quyen



Court of Córdoba Flourishes in Spain



Rise of Madrasas



Toltecs Build Tula



Otto I Defeats the Magyars



Oğhuz Turks Migrate to Transoxiana



Koreans Adopt the Tang Civil Service Model



Founding of the Song Dynasty



Jews Settle in Bohemia



Scholar-Official Class Flowers Under Song Dynasty



Foundation of the Mount Athos Monasteries



Reign of the FāṬimids



Building of al-Azhar Mosque



Foundation of the Western Cālukya Dynasty



Reign of Basil II



Le Dai Hanh Invades Champa



Reign of Rājarāja I



Hugh Capet Is Elected to the French Throne



Baptism of Vladimir I



Ghana Takes Control of Awdaghust



Reign of Maḥmūd of Ghazna



Collapse of the Huari and Tiwanaku Civilizations



Footbinding Develops in Chinese Society



Hindi Becomes India’s Dominant Language



Expansion of Sunni Islam in North Africa and Iberia



Building of Romanesque Cathedrals



First European-Native American Contact



Development of the Ife Kingdom and Yoruba Culture



Great Zimbabwe Urbanism and Architecture



Development of Miracle and Mystery Plays



Sei Shōnagon Completes The Pillow Book



Murasaki Shikibu Writes The Tale of Genji



Destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre



Firdusi Composes the Shahnamah



Songhai Kingdom Converts to Islam



Avicenna Writes His Canon of Medicine



Rice Is Introduced into China



Battle of Clontarf



Canute Conquers England



Scholars at Chartres Revive Interest in the Classics



Caliphate of Córdoba Falls



Expansion of the Seljuk Turks



Bi Sheng Develops Movable Earthenware Type



Zīrids Break from FāṬimid Dynasty and Revive Sunni Islam



Beginning of the Rome-Constantinople Schism



Almoravids Conquer Morocco and Establish the Almoravid Empire



Battle of Hastings



Wang Anshi Introduces Bureaucratic Reforms



Battle of Manzikert



Hummay Founds Sefuwa Dynasty



Emergence of Mapungubwe



Almoravids Sack Kumbi



Seljuk Dynasty Is Founded



Domesday Survey



El Cid Conquers Valencia



Pope Urban II Calls the First Crusade



Foundation of the Cistercian Order



Arabic Numerals Are Introduced into Europe



Founding of Timbuktu



Origins of Swahili in Its Written Form



Rise of Courtly Love



European Universities Emerge



Coins Are Minted on the Swahili Coast



Trading Center of Kilwa Kisiwani Founded



Wang Chongyang Founds Quanzhen Daoism



Social and Political Impact of Leprosy



Foundation of the Jin Dynasty



Order of the Knights Templar Is Founded



Creation of the Kingdom of Sicily



Birth of Zhu Xi



Karakitai Empire Established



Hildegard von Bingen Becomes Abbess



Kim Pu-sik Writes Samguk Sagi



Prester John Myth Sweeps Across Europe



Second Crusade



Moors Transmit Classical Philosophy and Medicine to Europe



Refinements in Banking



Venetian Merchants Dominate Trade with the East



Development of Gothic Architecture



Rise of the Hansa Merchant Union



Frederick Barbarossa Is Elected King of Germany



Jin Move Their Capital to Beijing



Angevin Empire Is Established



Charter of Lorris Is Written



Austria Emerges as a National Entity



Minamoto Yoritomo Becomes Shogun



Foundation of the Nemanjid Dynasty



Normans Invade Ireland



Murder of Thomas Becket



Hōnen Shōnin Founds Pure Land Buddhism



Waldensian Excommunications Usher in Protestant Movement



Chrétien de Troyes Writes Perceval



Lalibela Founds the Christian Capital of Ethiopia



Third Crusade



Moses Maimonides Writes The Guide of the Perplexed



Ma-Xia School of Painting Flourishes



Turkish Raiders Destroy Buddhist University at Nalanda



Ch’oe Family Takes Power in Korea



Common-Law Tradition Emerges in England



Scientific Cattle Breeding Developed



Manco Capac Founds the Inca State



Ndiadiane N’diaye Founds the Wolof Empire



Genghis Khan Founds Mongol Empire



Knights of the Fourth Crusade Capture Constantinople



QuṬ al-Dīn Aybak Establishes the Delhi Sultanate



Founding of the Franciscans



Albigensian Crusade



Children’s Crusade



Battle of Bouvines



Signing of the Magna Carta



Fourth Lateran Council



Fifth Crusade



Hōjō Family Dominates Shoguns, Rules Japan



Mai Dunama Dibbalemi Expands Kanem Empire



Tran Thai Tong Establishes Tran Dynasty



Jalāl al-Dīn Expands the Khwārizmian Empire



Frederick II Leads the Sixth Crusade



Teutonic Knights Bring Baltic Region Under Catholic Control



Unification of Castile and León



Reign of Sundiata of Mali



Papal Inquisition



Reign of Raziya



Alexander Nevsky Defends Novgorod from Swedish Invaders



Failure of the Seventh Crusade



Maoris Hunt Moa to Extinction



Improvements in Shipbuilding and Navigation



Homosexuality Criminalized and Subject to Death Penalty



Provisions of Oxford Are Established



Mangrai Founds the Kingdom of Lan Na



Battle of Ain Jālūt



Thomas Aquinas Compiles the Summa Theologica



Yekuno Amlak Founds the Solomonid Dynasty



Travels of Marco Polo



Sufi Order of Mawlawīyah Is Established



First Mechanical Clock



Nestorian Archbishopric Is Founded in Beijing



The Zohar Is Transcribed



Statute of Winchester



Jews Are Expelled from England, France, and Southern Italy



Fall of Acre



Model Parliament



Ramkhamhaeng Conquers the Mekong and Menam Valleys



YAlā՚-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Khaljī Conquers Gujarat



Battle of Bapheus



Boniface VIII Issues the Bull Unam Sanctam



Avignon Papacy and the Great Schism



Dante Writes The Divine Comedy



William of Ockham Attacks Thomist Ideas



Battle of Bannockburn



Swiss Victory at Morgarten over Habsburg Forces



Origins of the Bubonic Plague



Champa Wins Independence from Dai Viet



Peasants’ Revolt in Flanders



Lady Alice Kyteler Is Found Guilty of Witchcraft



Mansa Mūsā’s Pilgrimage to Mecca Sparks Interest in Mali Empire



Travels of Ibn BaṬṬūṬah



Aztecs Build Tenochtitlán



Flowering of Late Medieval Physics



Basarab Defeats the Hungarians



Kilwa Kisiwani Begins Economic and Historical Decline



Yoshino Civil Wars



Hundred Years’ War



Al-YUmarī Writes a History of Africa



Battle of Crécy



YAlā՚-ud-Dīn Bahman Shāh Founds the Bahmanī Sultanate



Invasion of the Black Death in Europe



Cola di Rienzo Leads Popular Uprising in Rome



Ramathibodi I Creates First Thai Legal System



Petrarch and Boccaccio Recover Classical Texts



Golden Bull



Kan’ami and Zeami Perfect Nō Drama



Statute of Kilkenny



Establishment of the Ming Dynasty



Tibet Gains Independence from Mongols



Jean Froissart Compiles His Chronicles



Ibn Khaldūn Completes His Muqaddimah



Condemnation of John Wyclif



Compilation of the Wise Sayings of Lal Ded



Battle of Kulikovo



Tamerlane’s Conquests



Reign of Sthitimalla



Chinese Create the Eight-Legged Essay



Chaucer Writes The Canterbury Tales



Turkish Conquest of Serbia



Foundation of the Gelugpa Order



Establishment of the Yi Dynasty



Publication of the Laws of Great Ming



Kalmar Union Is Formed



Tamerlane Builds the Bibi Khanum Mosque



Foundation of the West African States of Benin



Yonglo Dadian Encyclopedia Is Compiled



Zheng He’s Naval Expeditions



Battle of Tannenberg



Florentine School of Art Emerges



Council of Constance



Martyrdom of Jan Hus



Prince Henry the Navigator Promotes Portuguese Exploration



Le Loi Establishes Later Le Dynasty



Joan of Arc’s Relief of Orléans



Donation of Constantine Is Exposed



János Hunyadi Defends Hungary Against the Ottomans



Albanian Chieftains Unite Under Prince Skanderbeg



Gutenberg Pioneers the Printing Press



English Are Driven from France



Fall of Constantinople