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Great Events from History: The Middle Ages, 477-1453

Table of Contents

Confucianism Arrives in Japan

White Huns Raid India

Baptism of Clovis

Rise of Swahili Cultures

Tiwanaku Civilization Flourishes in Andean Highlands

Sogdians Dominate Central Asian Trade

Alaric II Drafts the Breviarum Alarici

Imprisonment and Death of Boethius

Justinian’s Code Is Compiled

Building of Hagia Sophia

Buddhism Arrives in Japan

Silk Worms Are Smuggled to the Byzantine Empire

Sāsānians and Turks Defeat the White Huns

Lombard Conquest of Italy

Sui Dynasty Reunifies China

Reforms of Pope Gregory the Great

Regency of Shōtoku Taishi

Invention of Decimals and Negative Numbers

See of Canterbury Is Established

El Tajín Is Built

Maya Build Astronomical Observatory at Palenque

Papermaking Spreads to Korea, Japan, and Central Asia

Mogollons Establish Agricultural Settlements

Building of the Grand Canal

National University Awards First Doctorate

Reign of Harṣa of Kanauj

Japan Sends Embassies to China

Muḥammad Receives Revelations

Reign of Pulakeśin II

Founding of the Tang Dynasty

Reign of Songtsen Gampo

Pilgrimage of Xuanzang

Reign of Narasiṃhavarman I Mahāmalla

Islam Expands Throughout North Africa

Founding of Lindisfarne and Creation of the Book of Kells

Battle of Yarmūk

Islam Expands Throughout the Middle East

Adoption of Nengo System and Taika Reforms

Christian Nubia and Muslim Egypt Sign Treaty

Silla Unification of Korea

Martyrdom of Prophet’s Grandson ḥusayn

Expansion of Śrivijaya

Building of the Dome of the Rock

Reign of Empress Wu

Bow and Arrow Spread into North America

Building of Chichén Itzá

Heavy Plow Helps Increase Agricultural Yields

Settlement of the South Pacific Islands

Confederation of Thai Tribes

Cahokia Becomes the First North American City

Hohokam Adapt to the Desert Southwest

Taihō Laws Reform Japanese Government

Construction of the Kāilaśanātha Temple

Ṭārik Crosses into Spain

Writing of Kojiki and Nihon Shoki

First Newspapers in China

Iconoclastic Controversy

Founding of Nanzhao

Rise of the Pratihāras

Bede Writes Ecclesiastical History of the English People

Battle of Tours

Christianity Is Introduced into Germany

Khazars Convert to Judaism

Uighur Turks Rule Central Asia

Rise and Fall of Ghana

Battle of Talas River

Coronation of Pépin the Short

Rebellion of An Lushan

Tibetans Capture Chang’an

Reign of Dharmapāla

Building of Borobuḍur

Beginning of the Harem System

Rise of the Sailendra Family

Alcuin Becomes Adviser to Charlemagne

Reign of Hārūn al-Rashīd

Śaṅkara Expounds Advaita VedĀnta

Buddhism Becomes Tibetan State Religion

Rise of the Samurai

Norse Raid Lindisfarne Monastery

Heian Period

Kana Syllabary Is Developed

Mississippian Mound-Building Culture Flourishes

Rise of the Toutswe Kingdom

Plains Village Culture Flourishes

Founding of the Khmer Empire

First Islamic Public Hospital

Nanzhao Subjugates Pyu

Gypsies Expelled from Persia

Tibetan Empire Dissolves

Uighur Migrations

Treaty of Verdun

Suppression of Buddhism

Invention of Gunpowder and Guns

Development of Slavic Alphabet

Viking Era

Foundation of Chan Chan

Rise of the Fujiwara Family

Nanzhao Captures Hanoi

Boris Converts to Christianity

First Book Printed

Zanj Revolt of African Slaves

Publication of the History of al-Ṭabarī

Indravarman I Conquers the Thai and the Mons

Alfred Defeats the Danes

Magyars Invade Italy, Saxony, and Bavaria

Beginning of Bulgaria’s Golden Age

Qarakhanids Convert to Islam

First Hausa State Established

Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Parāntaka I Conquers Pāṇḍya

Foundation of the Koryŏ Dynasty

Compilation of the Engi shiki

Khitans Settle Near Beijing

Reign of Ngo Quyen

Court of Córdoba Flourishes in Spain

Rise of Madrasas

Toltecs Build Tula

Otto I Defeats the Magyars

Oğhuz Turks Migrate to Transoxiana

Koreans Adopt the Tang Civil Service Model

Founding of the Song Dynasty

Jews Settle in Bohemia

Scholar-Official Class Flowers Under Song Dynasty

Foundation of the Mount Athos Monasteries

Reign of the FāṬimids

Building of al-Azhar Mosque

Foundation of the Western Cālukya Dynasty

Reign of Basil II

Le Dai Hanh Invades Champa

Reign of Rājarāja I

Hugh Capet Is Elected to the French Throne

Baptism of Vladimir I

Ghana Takes Control of Awdaghust

Reign of Maḥmūd of Ghazna

Collapse of the Huari and Tiwanaku Civilizations

Footbinding Develops in Chinese Society

Hindi Becomes India’s Dominant Language

Expansion of Sunni Islam in North Africa and Iberia

Building of Romanesque Cathedrals

First European-Native American Contact

Development of the Ife Kingdom and Yoruba Culture

Great Zimbabwe Urbanism and Architecture

Development of Miracle and Mystery Plays

Sei Shōnagon Completes The Pillow Book

Murasaki Shikibu Writes The Tale of Genji

Destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Firdusi Composes the Shahnamah

Songhai Kingdom Converts to Islam

Avicenna Writes His Canon of Medicine

Rice Is Introduced into China

Battle of Clontarf

Canute Conquers England

Scholars at Chartres Revive Interest in the Classics

Caliphate of Córdoba Falls

Expansion of the Seljuk Turks

Bi Sheng Develops Movable Earthenware Type

Zīrids Break from FāṬimid Dynasty and Revive Sunni Islam

Beginning of the Rome-Constantinople Schism

Almoravids Conquer Morocco and Establish the Almoravid Empire

Battle of Hastings

Wang Anshi Introduces Bureaucratic Reforms

Battle of Manzikert

Hummay Founds Sefuwa Dynasty

Emergence of Mapungubwe

Almoravids Sack Kumbi

Seljuk Dynasty Is Founded

Domesday Survey

El Cid Conquers Valencia

Pope Urban II Calls the First Crusade

Foundation of the Cistercian Order

Arabic Numerals Are Introduced into Europe

Founding of Timbuktu

Origins of Swahili in Its Written Form

Rise of Courtly Love

European Universities Emerge

Coins Are Minted on the Swahili Coast

Trading Center of Kilwa Kisiwani Founded

Wang Chongyang Founds Quanzhen Daoism

Social and Political Impact of Leprosy

Foundation of the Jin Dynasty

Order of the Knights Templar Is Founded

Creation of the Kingdom of Sicily

Birth of Zhu Xi

Karakitai Empire Established

Hildegard von Bingen Becomes Abbess

Kim Pu-sik Writes Samguk Sagi

Prester John Myth Sweeps Across Europe

Second Crusade

Moors Transmit Classical Philosophy and Medicine to Europe

Refinements in Banking

Venetian Merchants Dominate Trade with the East

Development of Gothic Architecture

Rise of the Hansa Merchant Union

Frederick Barbarossa Is Elected King of Germany

Jin Move Their Capital to Beijing

Angevin Empire Is Established

Charter of Lorris Is Written

Austria Emerges as a National Entity

Minamoto Yoritomo Becomes Shogun

Foundation of the Nemanjid Dynasty

Normans Invade Ireland

Murder of Thomas Becket

Hōnen Shōnin Founds Pure Land Buddhism

Waldensian Excommunications Usher in Protestant Movement

Chrétien de Troyes Writes Perceval

Lalibela Founds the Christian Capital of Ethiopia

Third Crusade

Moses Maimonides Writes The Guide of the Perplexed

Ma-Xia School of Painting Flourishes

Turkish Raiders Destroy Buddhist University at Nalanda

Ch’oe Family Takes Power in Korea

Common-Law Tradition Emerges in England

Scientific Cattle Breeding Developed

Manco Capac Founds the Inca State

Ndiadiane N’diaye Founds the Wolof Empire

Genghis Khan Founds Mongol Empire

Knights of the Fourth Crusade Capture Constantinople

QuṬ al-Dīn Aybak Establishes the Delhi Sultanate

Founding of the Franciscans

Albigensian Crusade

Children’s Crusade

Battle of Bouvines

Signing of the Magna Carta

Fourth Lateran Council

Fifth Crusade

Hōjō Family Dominates Shoguns, Rules Japan

Mai Dunama Dibbalemi Expands Kanem Empire

Tran Thai Tong Establishes Tran Dynasty

Jalāl al-Dīn Expands the Khwārizmian Empire

Frederick II Leads the Sixth Crusade

Teutonic Knights Bring Baltic Region Under Catholic Control

Unification of Castile and León

Reign of Sundiata of Mali

Papal Inquisition

Reign of Raziya

Alexander Nevsky Defends Novgorod from Swedish Invaders

Failure of the Seventh Crusade

Maoris Hunt Moa to Extinction

Improvements in Shipbuilding and Navigation

Homosexuality Criminalized and Subject to Death Penalty

Provisions of Oxford Are Established

Mangrai Founds the Kingdom of Lan Na

Battle of Ain Jālūt

Thomas Aquinas Compiles the Summa Theologica

Yekuno Amlak Founds the Solomonid Dynasty

Travels of Marco Polo

Sufi Order of Mawlawīyah Is Established

First Mechanical Clock

Nestorian Archbishopric Is Founded in Beijing

The Zohar Is Transcribed

Statute of Winchester

Jews Are Expelled from England, France, and Southern Italy

Fall of Acre

Model Parliament

Ramkhamhaeng Conquers the Mekong and Menam Valleys

YAlā՚-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Khaljī Conquers Gujarat

Battle of Bapheus

Boniface VIII Issues the Bull Unam Sanctam

Avignon Papacy and the Great Schism

Dante Writes The Divine Comedy

William of Ockham Attacks Thomist Ideas

Battle of Bannockburn

Swiss Victory at Morgarten over Habsburg Forces

Origins of the Bubonic Plague

Champa Wins Independence from Dai Viet

Peasants’ Revolt in Flanders

Lady Alice Kyteler Is Found Guilty of Witchcraft

Mansa Mūsā’s Pilgrimage to Mecca Sparks Interest in Mali Empire

Travels of Ibn BaṬṬūṬah

Aztecs Build Tenochtitlán

Flowering of Late Medieval Physics

Basarab Defeats the Hungarians

Kilwa Kisiwani Begins Economic and Historical Decline

Yoshino Civil Wars

Hundred Years’ War

Al-YUmarī Writes a History of Africa

Battle of Crécy

YAlā՚-ud-Dīn Bahman Shāh Founds the Bahmanī Sultanate

Invasion of the Black Death in Europe

Cola di Rienzo Leads Popular Uprising in Rome

Ramathibodi I Creates First Thai Legal System

Petrarch and Boccaccio Recover Classical Texts

Golden Bull

Kan’ami and Zeami Perfect Nō Drama

Statute of Kilkenny

Establishment of the Ming Dynasty

Tibet Gains Independence from Mongols

Jean Froissart Compiles His Chronicles

Ibn Khaldūn Completes His Muqaddimah

Condemnation of John Wyclif

Compilation of the Wise Sayings of Lal Ded

Battle of Kulikovo

Tamerlane’s Conquests

Reign of Sthitimalla

Chinese Create the Eight-Legged Essay

Chaucer Writes The Canterbury Tales

Turkish Conquest of Serbia

Foundation of the Gelugpa Order

Establishment of the Yi Dynasty

Publication of the Laws of Great Ming

Kalmar Union Is Formed

Tamerlane Builds the Bibi Khanum Mosque

Foundation of the West African States of Benin

Yonglo Dadian Encyclopedia Is Compiled

Zheng He’s Naval Expeditions

Battle of Tannenberg

Florentine School of Art Emerges

Council of Constance

Martyrdom of Jan Hus

Prince Henry the Navigator Promotes Portuguese Exploration

Le Loi Establishes Later Le Dynasty

Joan of Arc’s Relief of Orléans

Donation of Constantine Is Exposed

János Hunyadi Defends Hungary Against the Ottomans

Albanian Chieftains Unite Under Prince Skanderbeg

Gutenberg Pioneers the Printing Press

English Are Driven from France

Fall of Constantinople