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Great Events from History: The Twentieth Century, 1941-1970

Table of Contents

World War II: Pacific Theater

World War II: European Theater

Bultmann Offers a Controversial Interpretation of the Christian Scriptures

New Criticism Arises in American Universities

Portable Aerosol Containers Are Introduced

Shirer Examines the Rise of Nazi Ideology in Berlin Diary

French Resistance

6.6 Million Women Enter the U.S. Labor Force

U.S. Censorship and War Propaganda During World War II

Nationalist Chinese Forces Battle Communists as Japan Advances

Thai Forces Attack French Troops Near Battambang

Messiaen’s Quartet for the End of Time Is Performed

Seaborg and McMillan Make Plutonium

Niebuhr Extols a Theory of Christian Realism

Bulgaria Joins the Tripartite Pact

United States Enters the Battle of the Atlantic

Roosevelt Signs the Lend-Lease Act

Germany Mounts the Balkan Offensive

Ho Chi Minh Organizes the Viet Minh

Welles’s Citizen Kane Breaks with Traditional Filmmaking

FCC Licenses Commercial Television

NBC Is Ordered to Divest Itself of a Radio Network

Anglo-Iraqi War

Turbojet Engine Is Used in the First Jet Plane

Germany Invades Crete

Sinking of the German Battleship Bismarck

Yankee Baseball Great Lou Gehrig Dies

Germany Invades Russia

Roosevelt Bans Discrimination in Defense-Industry Employment

Atlantic Charter Declares a Postwar Right of Self-Determination

Nazis Ban Nolde’s Paintings

Davies Reflects on His Post to Moscow in Mission to Moscow

The Maltese Falcon Establishes a New Style for Crime Films

Mount Rushmore National Memorial Is Completed

Bombing of Pearl Harbor

Canada Declares War on Japan

Japan Begins Attacks on Southeast Asia

Japan Invades the Philippines

Germany and Italy Declare War on the United States

Churchill Visits Canada as World War II Ally

International League for the Rights of Man Is Founded

Italian New Wave Gains Worldwide Acclaim

Wannsee Conference and the “Final Solution”

Roosevelt Signs the Emergency Price Control Act

Lewis Explores the Mind of Evil in The Screwtape Letters

United States Interns Japanese Americans

Voice of America Begins Broadcasting

Battle of the Java Sea

Congress of Racial Equality Forms

Doolittle Mission Bombs Tokyo

Battle of the Coral Sea

Faulkner Publishes Go Down, Moses

Battle of Midway

United States Develops the First Nuclear Weapon

United States Begins the Bracero Program

Battle of Guadalcanal

Stein Is Killed by the Nazis

Battle of Stalingrad

Legal Slavery Ends in Ethiopia

Lindeman’s “The Trophic-Dynamic Aspect of Ecology” Is Published

Oxford Committee for Famine Relief Is Founded

Kazan Brings Naturalism to the Stage and Screen

Agnes de Mille Choreographs Rodeo

Peggy Guggenheim’s Gallery Promotes New American Art

Second Battle of El Alamein

Invasion of North Africa

Casablanca Marks the Artistic Apex of 1940’s War-Themed Films

Fire in Boston’s Cocoanut Grove Nightclub Proves Deadly

Fermi Creates the First Controlled Nuclear Fission Chain Reaction

Saroyan Offers a Compelling Story of Hope in The Human Comedy

Von Weizsäcker Forms His Quantitative Theory of Planetary Formation

Famine Decimates Bengal

Soviets Take Control of Eastern Europe

Casablanca Conference

Roosevelt Creates Jackson Hole National Monument

Cousteau and Gagnan Develop the Aqualung

Oklahoma! Opens on Broadway

Eckert and Mauchly Develop the ENIAC

Inflation and Labor Unrest

Warsaw Ghetto Armed Uprising Against Nazis

United Nations Holds Its First Conference on Food and Agriculture

Zoot-Suit Riots Exemplify Ethnic Tensions in Los Angeles

Supreme Court Rules That States Cannot Compel Flag Salutes

Race Riots Erupt in Detroit and Harlem

Sartre’s Being and Nothingness Expresses Existential Philosophy

Tank Battle at Kursk Devastates German Forces

Battle of Kula Gulf

Allied Forces Invade Sicily

Stormy Weather Offers New Film Roles to African Americans

Australians Elect First Women to Parliament

Sinatra Establishes Himself as a Solo Performer

Waksman Discovers the Antibiotic Streptomycin

Western Allies Invade Italy

Black Wednesday Demonstrates Dangers of Smog

Citizens Rescue Danish Jews from Germans

Alaska Highway Is Completed

Thai-Burma Railway Is Completed with Forced Labor

World’s First Nuclear Reactor Is Activated

Central Pacific Offensive

Cairo Conference and Declaration Addresses War in the Pacific

Tehran Conference Promotes Allied Cooperation in Iran

Secret English Team Develops Colossus

Magnuson Act Repeals the Chinese Exclusion Act

Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty Determine That DNA Carries Hereditary Information

Borges’s Ficciones Transcends Traditional Realism

Hodgkin Solves the Structure of Penicillin

Sanger Determines the Structure of Insulin

Kelly Forges New Directions in Cinematic Dance

Sartre and Camus Give Dramatic Voice to Existential Philosophy

Kuiper Discovers That Titan Has an Atmosphere

Hayek Opposes Centralized Economic Planning

France Grants Suffrage to Women

Supreme Court Rules African American Disenfranchisement Unconstitutional

Robbins’s Fancy Free Premieres

U.S. Highball Premieres in New York

Invasion of Normandy Begins the Liberation of Europe

Battle of the Philippine Sea

German V-1 and V-2 Weapons Are Deployed

Superfortress Bombing of Japan

Roosevelt Signs the G.I. Bill

Bretton Woods Agreement Encourages Free Trade

Allied Forces Break German Front in France

Operation Dragoon

Borlaug Begins Work on High-Yield Wheat

Allied Forces Begin the Battle for Germany

Japan Orders Kamikaze Attacks

Battle for Leyte Gulf

Graham Debuts Appalachian Spring with Copland Score

Reber Publishes the First Radio Maps of the Galaxy

Franklin D. Roosevelt Wins a Fourth Presidential Term

Canada Implements Conscription After Months of Crisis

Blalock and Taussig Perform the First “Blue Baby” Surgery

Battle of the Bulge

First Modern Herbicide Is Introduced

Africans Return Home After World War II

Billy Graham Becomes a Traveling Evangelist

Arts and Architecture Magazine Initiates the Case Study Program

Fluoride Is Introduced into the U.S. Water Supply

Yalta Conference

Soviet Exiles and Prisoners of War Are Forced into Repatriation

American Flag Is Raised at Iwo Jima

Alcoa Is Convicted of Violating the Sherman Antitrust Act

Going My Way Wins Best Picture

Okinawa Campaign Meets Stiff Japanese Resistance

Bonhoeffer Is Executed by the Nazis

War Correspondent Pyle Dies in Combat

United Nations Charter Convention

Algerian Nationalists Riot at Sétif

V-E Day Marks the End of World War II in Europe

Evelyn Waugh Captures Prewar English Life in Brideshead Revisited

Britten Completes Peter Grimes

Duggar Develops the First Tetracycline Antibiotic

First Nuclear Bomb Is Detonated

Potsdam Conference

Labour Party Forms Britain’s Majority Government

Atomic Bombs Destroy Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Truman Proclamation on the Continental Shelf

Norwegians Execute Nazi Collaborator Quisling

Japanese General Yamashita Is Convicted of War Crimes

Nazi War Criminals Are Tried at Nuremberg

War Brides Act

British and Australian Tribunals Impose Death Sentences for War Crimes

Jaspers Examines Germany’s Collective Responsibility for War Crimes

Hollywood Studio System Is Transformed

Westerns Dominate Postwar American Film

First U.N. Secretary-General Is Selected

Establishment of the International Court of Justice

Employment Act

Perón Creates a Populist Political Alliance in Argentina

Churchill Delivers His Iron Curtain Speech

France Launches the Monnet Plan

Parker’s Playing Epitomizes Bebop

Truman Orders Seizure of the Railroads

Canada’s Citizenship Act Is Passed

Philippines Regains Its Independence

Bikini Swimsuit Is Introduced

Mother Cabrini Becomes the First U.S. Citizen Canonized as a Saint

Truman Creates the Bureau of Land Management

World Health Organization Proclaims Health a Basic Human Right

Hiroshima Recounts the Story of Surviving a Nuclear Explosion

Atomic Energy Commission Is Established

Congress Creates the Fulbright Program

Mahalia Jackson Begins Her Recording Career

Physicists Develop the First Synchrocyclotron

Nationalist Vietnamese Fight French Control of Indochina

United Kingdom Passes the National Health Service Act

United Nations Admits Its First New Member States

First Cloud Seeding Heralds Weather Modification

First Performance by Balanchine and Kirstein’s Ballet Society

International Whaling Commission Is Formed

UNICEF Is Established

Spain Is Denied Entrance into the United Nations

Capra Releases It’s a Wonderful Life

Construction Starts on Brookhaven Nuclear Reactor

Gabor Develops the Concept of Holography

Lamb and Retherford Discover the Lamb Shift

Simon Publishes Administrative Behavior

Blacklisting Depletes Hollywood’s Talent Pool

Land Demonstrates the Polaroid Camera

Truman Doctrine

Dior’s “New Look” Sweeps Europe and America

Congress of Racial Equality Holds Its Journey of Reconciliation

Robinson Breaks the Color Line in Major-League Baseball

Heyerdahl’s Kon-Tiki Expedition

Japan Becomes a Constitutional Democracy

Japanese Constitution Grants New Rights to Women

Construction of Levittown Is Announced

Taft-Hartley Act Passes over Truman’s Veto

Great Books Foundation Is Established

National Security Act

India Gains Independence from the United Kingdom

German Writers Form Group 47

NBC Broadcasts the Baseball World Series

Yeager Breaks the Sound Barrier

HUAC Investigates Hollywood

India and Pakistan Clash over Kashmir

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Is Signed

First Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Is Discovered

Arab-Israeli War Creates Refugee Crisis

Invention of the Transistor

Aversion Drug Found for the Treatment of Alcoholism

Fender Introduces the Broadcaster Guitar

Greene’s The Heart of the Matter Is Published

Mailer Publishes The Naked and the Dead

Merton Publishes His Spiritual Autobiography, The Seven Storey Mountain

Morgenthau Advances Realist School of Power Politics

Osborn Publishes Our Plundered Planet

Roberts Starts the Healing Waters Ministry

Simons Articulates the Chicago School of Public Policy

Soviets Escalate Persecution of Jews

Steady-State Theory of the Universe Is Advanced by Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle

Vogt’s Road to Survival Warns of Overpopulation

Ryle’s Radio Telescope Locates the First Known Radio Galaxy

Soviets Adopt Stalin’s Plan for the Transformation of Nature

Benelux Customs Union Enters into Force

Gandhi Is Assassinated

Paton Explores South Africa’s Racial Divide in Cry, the Beloved Country

Ceylon Becomes an Independent Dominion

Zhdanov Denounces “Formalism” in Music

Communists Seize Power in Czechoslovakia

Costa Rica Endures Its Bloodiest Civil War

Marshall Plan Provides Aid to Europe

La Violencia Begins in Colombia

ABC Begins Its Own Network Television Service

Dead Sea Scrolls Are Unearthed

Organization of American States Is Founded

American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man Is Adopted

Antitrust Rulings Force Film Studios to Divest Theaters

Olivier’s Hamlet Is Released to Acclaim and Controversy

Israel Is Created as a Homeland for Jews

General Motors and the UAW Introduce the COLA Clause

Variety Shows Dominate Television Programming

Hale Constructs the 200-Inch Telescope

“Mr. Television” Hosts the Texaco Star Theater

Berlin Blockade

First Water Pollution Control Act Is Passed

Textron Initiates the Trend Toward Conglomeration

Rhee Is Elected President of South Korea

Truman Orders Desegregation of U.S. Armed Forces

Mathias Is Dubbed the “World’s Greatest Athlete”

World Council of Churches Is Formed

India Invades Hyderabad State

World Conservation Union Is Founded

Earthquake Devastates Ashgabat and Kills Up to 100,000 People

Pennsylvania Town Suffers Deadly Temperature Inversion

Gamow Develops the Big Bang Theory

Truman Is Elected President

St. Laurent Becomes Canadian Prime Minister

Kukla, Fran, and Ollie Pioneers Children’s Television Programming

United Nations Adopts Convention on Genocide

United Nations Adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Hungary’s Communist Government Arrests Cardinal Mindszenty

Porter Creates an Integrated Score for Kiss Me, Kate

Beauvoir’s The Second Sex Anticipates the Women’s Movement

Community Antenna Television Is Introduced

Diners Club Begins a New Industry

Hanford Nuclear Reservation Becomes a Health Concern

Leopold Publishes A Sand County Almanac

Soviet Union Adopts Measures to Reduce Air Pollution

X Rays from a Synchrotron Are First Used in Medical Diagnosis and Treatment

Ealing Comedies Mark a High Point in British Film

East Germans Flee to West to Escape Communist Regime

Brecht Founds the Berliner Ensemble

Davis Develops 1950’s Cool Jazz

Soviet Bloc States Establish Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

Pound Wins the Bollingen Prize

HERMES Builds the First Multistage Rocket

Libby Introduces the Carbon-14 Method of Dating Ancient Objects

Vietnam Is Named a State

Newfoundland Becomes Canada’s Tenth Province

North Atlantic Treaty Organization Is Formed

Brothers at Taizé Take Permanent Vows

Nineteen Eighty-Four Portrays Totalitarianism and Mind Control

Hank Williams Performs on The Grand Ole Opry

First Electronic Stored-Program Computer Is Completed

National Basketball Association Is Formed

Spanish Becomes the Language of Instruction in Puerto Rico

Geneva Conventions Establish Norms of Conduct in War

The Third Man Premieres

Germany Splits into Two Republics

Mao Zedong Proclaims a Communist People’s Republic in China

Indian Government Bans Discrimination Against Untouchables

United Nations Convention Suppressing Human Trafficking Is Adopted

United Nations Creates an Agency to Aid Palestinian Refugees

De Vaucouleurs Identifies the Local Supercluster of Galaxies

“Angry Young Men” Express Working-Class Views

Beat Generation Rejects Mainstream Values

Family Comedies on Television Rise in Popularity

Golden Age of Television

Acid Rain Changes Lake and Riverine Ecology

Boyd Defines Human “Races” by Blood Groups

Oort Offers a Theory of Comets

Robinson’s The Cardinal Tops Best-Seller List

U.S. Government Encourages American Indians to Settle in Cities

Children Delight in The Chronicles of Narnia

Stalin and Mao Pen a Defense Pact

AP Names Didrikson Woman Athlete of the Half Century

Meteorologists Make the First Computerized Weather Prediction

Jordan Annexes the West Bank

Artificial Sweetener Cyclamate Is Introduced

Korean War

European Payments Union Is Formed

Israel Enacts the Law of Return

Sunset Boulevard Premieres

Indonesia Regains Its Independence

First Home Owner’s Insurance Policies Are Offered

China Invades and Begins Rule of Tibet

Mother Teresa Founds the Missionaries of Charity

Pius XII Proclaims the Doctrine of the Assumption

President Truman Escapes Assassination Attempt

United Nations General Assembly Passes the Uniting for Peace Resolution

European Convention on Human Rights Is Signed

National Council of Churches Is Formed

United Nations Korean Relief Agency Is Formed

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Statute Is Approved

Celler-Kefauver Act Amends Antitrust Legislation

Hofstadter Discovers That Protons and Neutrons Have Structure

Lipmann Discovers Coenzyme A

Rise of the New Novel

Teller and Ulam Develop the First Hydrogen Bomb

Beckett’s Trilogy Expands the Frontiers of Fiction

Le Corbusier Designs and Builds Chandigarh

Powell Publishes the Epic A Dance to the Music of Time

From Here to Eternity Wins Wide Readership

Iran Nationalizes Its Oil Industry

U.S. Presidents Are Limited to Two Terms

Truman-MacArthur Confrontation

UNIVAC I Becomes the First Commercial Electronic Computer

Tupper Adopts Home-Sales Strategy for Tupperware

Bundestag Passes Legislation on Codetermination

European Coal and Steel Community Is Established

South Africa Begins Separate Development System

Young Readers Embrace The Catcher in the Rye

Adoption of the U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees

Security Pact Is Signed by Three Pacific Nations Against Communist Encroachment

Treaty of Peace with Japan Is Signed in San Francisco

Kurosawa’s Rashomon Wins the Grand Prize at Venice

Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress Premieres in Venice

A Streetcar Named Desire Brings Method Acting to the Screen

The Red Skelton Show Becomes a Landmark on Network Television

I Love Lucy Dominates Television Comedy

Nature Conservancy Is Founded

United States Inaugurates Mutual Security Program

Jouhaux Is Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

Dragnet Airs as the First Widely Popular Police Show

World’s First Breeder Reactor Produces Electricity

Amahl and the Night Visitors Premieres on American Television

Voest Develops the Basic Oxygen Process for Steelmaking

Ellison’s Invisible Man Is Published

Peale Promotes the Power of Positive Thinking

Tillich Examines Modern Anxiety in The Courage to Be

Wilkins Introduces Reserpine for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure

Müller Develops the Field Ion Microscope

Day Publishes Her Autobiography, The Long Loneliness

Sheen Entertains and Instructs on American Television

Bevis Describes Amniocentesis as a Method to Check Fetal Genetic Traits

Massey Becomes Canada’s First Native-Born Governor-General

Revolution Grips Bolivia

Truman Orders Seizure of Steel Plants

McCarran-Walter Act

Salk Develops a Polio Vaccine

King Farouk of Egypt Is Overthrown

Premiere of High Noon

Puerto Rico Becomes a Commonwealth

Baade Corrects an Error in the Cepheid Luminosity Scale

Cage’s 4′ 33″ Premieres

Germany Agrees to Pay Reparations to Israel

Hasbro Advertises Toys on Television

Marciano Wins His First Heavyweight Boxing Championship

Mau Mau Uprising Creates Havoc in Kenya

Brower Becomes Executive Director of the Sierra Club

Eisenhower Is Elected President

Rockefeller Founds the Population Council

The Mousetrap Begins a Record-Breaking Run

Rosenberg Defines “Action Painting”

Smog Kills Thousands of Londoners

Mauriac Accepts the Nobel Prize in Literature

Chalk River Nuclear Reactor Explosion and Meltdown

United Nations Convention on the Political Rights of Women Is Approved

Keep America Beautiful Is Founded

Morita Licenses Transistor Technology

Skinner Develops the Behaviorist School of Psychology

Marilyn Monroe Climbs to Stardom

Liquid Bubble Chamber Is Developed

China Begins Its First Five-Year Plan

Waiting for Godot Expresses the Existential Theme of Absurdity

McCarthy Hearings

The Crucible Allegorizes the Red Scare Era

North Sea Flood Kills Nearly Two Thousand People in Holland

Death of Stalin

Fuller Builds First Industrial Geodesic Dome

Watson and Crick Announce the Double-Helix Model for DNA

Hammarskjöld Is Elected U.N. Secretary-General

Shane Premieres

Miller Reports the Synthesis of Amino Acids

Hillary and Tenzing Reach the Top of Mount Everest

Rosenbergs Are Executed for Peacetime Espionage

Congress Creates the Small Business Administration

Native Americans Lose Government Special Status

Formation of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland

Refugee Relief Act

Aserinsky Discovers REM Sleep

Premiere of the First CinemaScope Film

Polish Communist Government Arrests the Primate of Poland

Du Vigneaud Synthesizes the First Peptide Hormone

United Nations Amends Its International Slavery Treaty

Cambodia Gains Independence from France

Test Aircraft Exceeds Twice the Speed of Sound

Schweitzer Is Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

Drucker Examines Managerial Roles

Golding’s Lord of the Flies Spurs Examination of Human Nature

Jasper Johns Paints the American Flag

First Nuclear-Powered U.S. Submarine Is Launched

Canada and the United States Establish the DEW Line

Hubbard Founds the Church of Scientology

Nuclear Bombing of Bikini Atoll

Laura Ashley Fashion Company Is Founded

Catton Wins a Pulitzer Prize for A Stillness at Appomattox

ABC Makes a Landmark Deal with Disney

Value-Added Taxes Begin in Europe

Barghoorn and Tyler Discover 2-Billion-Year-Old Microfossils

Wilkins and Kline Discover the First Tranquilizer for Psychosis

Bell Scientists Develop the Photovoltaic Cell

Military Coup Begins Thirty-Five Years of Dictatorship in Paraguay

Moon Founds the Unification Church

Bannister Beats the Four-Minute Mile

Supreme Court Ends Public School Segregation

Taylor Establishes His Own Dance Company

Tolkien Publishes The Lord of the Rings

U.S. Government Program Begins Deporting Mexican Workers

United Fruit Company Instigates a Coup in Guatemala

The Caine Mutiny Premieres

Soviet Union Completes Its First Nuclear Power Plant

Julius Nyerere Emerges as Leader in Tanganyika

Eisenhower Begins the Food for Peace Program

First Newport Jazz Festival Is Held

Operation Passage to Freedom Evacuates Refugees from North Vietnam

U.S. Tax Laws Allow Accelerated Depreciation

Atomic Energy Act

La Strada Solidifies Fellini’s Renown as a Brilliant Director

SEATO Is Founded

The Tonight Show Becomes an American Institution

United Nations Drafts a Convention on Stateless Persons

Western European Union Is Established

Humane Society of the United States Is Established

Varèse Premieres Déserts

Li Isolates Human Growth Hormone

Franklin and Burke Discover Radio Emissions from Jupiter

Diquat Herbicide Is Developed for Weed Control

Ochoa Creates Synthetic RNA

O’Connor Publishes A Good Man Is Hard to Find

Ryle Constructs the First Radio Interferometer

Teilhard de Chardin Attempts to Reconcile Religion and Evolution

Indian Parliament Approves Women’s Rights Legislation

Brezhnev Rises in Communist Ranks

Latin American Fiction “Boom”

Formosa Resolution Is Signed into Law

McDonald’s Fast Food Is Incorporated and Franchised

Poitier Emerges as a Film Star in The Blackboard Jungle

Berry’s “Maybellene” Popularizes Rock and Roll

On the Waterfront Wins Best Picture

Afro-Asian Conference Considers Nonalignment

Presbyterian and Methodist Churches Approve Ordination of Women

Warsaw Pact Is Signed

Austria Regains Its Independence

Le Mans Auto-Racing Accident Kills More than Eighty

Boulez’s Le Marteau sans maître Premieres

Scientists Campaign Against Nuclear Testing

Air Force Academy Is Dedicated

Congress Passes the Air Pollution Control Act

Disneyland Amusement Park Opens

First Sudanese Civil War Erupts

United Nations Sets Rules for Treatment of Prisoners

First Full Edition of Dickinson’s Poems

United States Launches Vanguard Satellite Program

Debut of Gunsmoke Launches the Adult Western Drama

The Honeymooners Defines Situation Comedy

Captain Kangaroo Expands Children’s Television

Dean Becomes a Legend in Rebel Without a Cause

Buckley Founds National Review Magazine

Meltdown Occurs in the First Breeder Reactor

AFL and CIO Merge

Montgomery Bus Boycott

United Nations Admits Sixteen New Members

Fromm Publishes The Art of Loving

Heezen and Ewing Discover the Midoceanic Ridge

Mills Analyzes Political Power in the United States

Wiesel’s Night Recalls the Holocaust

Presley Becomes a Rock-and-Roll Sensation

French New Wave Ushers in a New Era of Cinema

Saarinen Designs Kennedy Airport’s TWA Terminal

Mission 66 Plan Is Implemented

Khrushchev Denounces Stalinist Regime

Premiere of The Searchers

Minamata Bay Mercury Poisoning Begins to Claim Victims

Birth Control Pills Are Tested in Puerto Rico

Echo Park Dam Proposal Is Defeated

Brazil Builds a New Capital City

Osborne’s Look Back in Anger Opens in London

Oil Is Discovered in Nigeria

Congress Amends the Water Pollution Control Act

Foreign Aid Is Withdrawn from Egypt’s Aswan High Dam Project

Egypt Attempts to Nationalize the Suez Canal

Cuban Revolution

First Transatlantic Telephone Cable Begins Operation

Joffrey Founds His Ballet Company

First Two-Story, Fully Enclosed Shopping Mall Opens

Larsen Pitches a Perfect Game in Baseball’s World Series

First Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Opens

Soviets Crush Hungarian Uprising

Long Day’s Journey into Night Revives O’Neill’s Reputation

Cold War Politics Mar the Melbourne Summer Olympics

Firms Begin Replacing Skilled Laborers with Automated Tools

Dioxin Causes Chloracne in West German Chemical Workers

Isaacs and Lindenmann Discover Interferons

Sabin Develops the Oral Polio Vaccine

Sony Develops the Pocket-Sized Transistor Radio

Eisenhower Doctrine

SCLC Forms to Link Civil Rights Groups

Asian Flu Pandemic Kills Millions Worldwide

Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer Explain Superconductivity

Ghana Gains Independence from the United Kingdom

Mao’s Hundred Flowers Campaign Begins

European Common Market Is Established

IBM Develops the FORTRAN Computer Language

Bergman Wins International Fame with The Seventh Seal

Diefenbaker Serves as Canadian Prime Minister

United Nations Adopts the Abolition of Forced Labor Convention

International Atomic Energy Agency Begins Operations

Price-Anderson Act Limits Nuclear Liability

Jodrell Bank Radio Telescope Is Completed

Nuclear Waste Explodes in the Ural Mountains

Ford Introduces the Edsel

Wolfenden Report Recommends Decriminalizing Consensual Sex

Congress Creates the Commission on Civil Rights

Thai Military Coup

Brooklyn Dodgers Move to Los Angeles

Ford Foundation Begins to Fund Nonprofit Theaters

Eisenhower Sends Troops to Little Rock, Arkansas

Bernstein Joins Symphonic and Jazz Elements in West Side Story

Pasternak’s Doctor Zhivago Is Published

Soviet Union Launches the First Artificial Satellite

England’s Windscale Reactor Releases Radiation

Dyna-Soar Space Plane Is Developed

Duvalier Takes Power in Haiti

Cousins Founds SANE

First U.S. Commercial Nuclear Plant Opens

AFL-CIO Expels the Teamsters Union

Willson’s The Music Man Presents Musical Americana

Burdick and Lederer Explore the Image of the “Ugly American”

Congress Sets Standards for Chemical Additives in Food

Donald Uses Ultrasound to Examine Human Fetuses

Galbraith Critiques the Creation of a Society of Mass Consumption

Mao’s Great Leap Forward Brings Chaos to China

Theatre Workshop Presents Behan’s The Hostage

Things Fall Apart Depicts the Destruction of Ibo Culture

Seven of the Top Ten Television Series Are Westerns

Esaki Demonstrates Electron Tunneling in Semiconductors

United States Launches Its First Orbiting Satellite

Syria and Egypt Form the United Arab Republic

Ailey Founds His Dance Company

Nixon Faces Riots on Tour of Latin America

Canada and the United States Create NORAD

Middle East Turmoil Leads to U.N. Action in Lebanon

Hula Hoop Is Marketed

Race Riots Erupt in London

Karol Wojty?a Is Named Poland’s Youngest Bishop

Iraq’s Monarchy Is Toppled

Van Allen Discovers the Earth’s Radiation Belts

Congress Creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Congress Gives Tax Breaks to Financiers of Small Businesses

Guinea Gains Independence from France

Pioneer Space Program Is Launched

Boeing 707 Begins Commercial Service

Parker Predicts the Existence of the Solar Wind

Deep Space Network Begins

Pire Is Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

Radio Astronomers Transmit Radar Signals to and from the Sun

Drury Sets a Novel of Political Intrigue in Washington, D.C.

Grass Publishes The Tin Drum

Mattingly Documents the Spanish Armada

Famine Decimates China

First Successful Synthesizer Is Completed

Gordy Founds Motown Records

Alaska and Hawaii Gain Statehood

Nyasaland Independence Leader Banda Is Arrested by British Colonials

Cuba Begins Expropriating Foreign Property

Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun Debuts on Broadway

Some Like It Hot Premieres

NASA Launches Project Gemini

Price Identifies an Ancient Astronomical Computer

X-15 Rocket Aircraft Program

St. Lawrence Seaway Opens

Leakeys Find a 1.75-Million-Year-Old Fossil Hominid

Basque Separatist Organization Is Formed

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Is Created

Bonanza Becomes an American Television Classic

Landrum-Griffin Act Targets Union Corruption

Luna 2 Becomes the First Human-Made Object to Impact on the Moon

Luna 3 Provides the First Views of the Far Side of the Moon

Wright-Designed Guggenheim Museum Opens

Ionesco’s Rhinoceros Receives a Resounding Worldwide Reception

Rwandan Hutus Overthrow Tutsi Monarchy

Death of Villa-Lobos

United Nations Adopts the Declaration of the Rights of the Child

Hopper Invents the Computer Language COBOL

Quant Introduces the Miniskirt

Sperry Discovers That Sides of the Human Brain Can Function Independently

Cubans Flee to Florida and Receive Assistance

Kurds Suffer Genocide in Iraq

Mumford Warns of the Dangers of Growing Cities

Service Economy Emerges in the United States

Situation Comedies Dominate Television Programming

Sixties Culture in the United States Rediscovers the Works of Hesse

SoHo Emerges as a Center for Contemporary Art

Soviet Jews Demand Cultural and Religious Rights

Africa’s Year of Independence

Hess Identifies the Cause of Continental Drift

Mössbauer Effect Is Used to Detect Gravitational Redshifting

Quebec Sovereignist Movement Begins

European Free Trade Association Is Established

Greensboro Sit-Ins

Godard’s Breathless Revolutionizes Film

Scientists Develop a Technique to Date Ancient Obsidian

Sharpeville Massacre Focuses Global Awareness on Apartheid

Consumers International Is Founded

TIROS 1 Becomes the First Experimental Weather Reconnaissance Satellite

Ben-Hur Wins Best Picture

Pinter’s The Caretaker Opens in London

U-2 Incident

Civil Rights Act of 1960

Oró Detects the Formation of Adenine from Cyanide Solution

Congress Passes the Multiple Use-Sustained Yield Act

Psycho Becomes Hitchcock’s Most Famous Film

FDA Approves the Birth Control Pill

Invention of the Laser

Katanga Province Secedes from Congo and Riots Ensue

United Nations Intervenes in the Congolese Civil War

A Man for All Seasons Premieres

Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird Calls for Social Justice

Hazardous Substances Labeling Act Is Signed

Canadian Bill of Rights Prohibits Sex Discrimination

First Passive Communications Satellite Is Launched

Cyprus Gains Independence

Rudolph Becomes the Fastest Woman in the World

Radio’s Payola Scandal

First OPEC Meeting

Plath’s The Colossus Voices Women’s Experience

The Flintstones Popularizes Prime-Time Cartoons

Kennedy Is Elected President

Collapse of the Laotian Government Leads to Civil War

Disposable Diapers Are Introduced to U.S. Market

Catch-22 Illustrates Antiwar Sentiment

Esslin Publishes The Theatre of the Absurd

Foucault’s Madness and Civilization Is Published

Horsfall Detects the Link Between Cancer and Altered DNA

Percy Begins His Literary Career with The Moviegoer

Royal Shakespeare Company Adopts a New Name and Focus

Stone Documents the Life of Michelangelo

Al-Hakim Introduces Absurdism to the Arab Stage

Eisenhower Warns of the Military-Industrial Complex

The American Dream Establishes Albee as the Voice of Pessimism

Tamils Protest Discrimination in Ceylon

Negotiable Certificate of Deposit Is Introduced

Ranger Program

National Council of Churches Supports Birth Control

Peace Corps Is Founded

District of Columbia Receives Representation in Presidential Elections

Eichmann Is Tried for War Crimes

First Human Orbits the Earth

Bay of Pigs Invasion

United States Places Its First Astronaut in Space

Pope John XXIII Issues Mater et Magistra and Pacem in Terris

U.S. Supreme Court Orders Du Pont to Disburse GM Holdings

Amnesty International Is Founded

Dominican Dictator Rafael Trujillo Is Assassinated

Heinlein Publishes Stranger in a Strange Land

Nirenberg Cracks the Genetic Code

Antarctic Treaty Goes into Force

Communists Raise the Berlin Wall

Eritrea Begins Its War for Independence

Nonaligned Movement Meets

World Wildlife Fund Is Established

United Nations Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld Dies in a Plane Crash

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Forms

Webster’s Third New International Dictionary

The Dick Van Dyke Show Popularizes Situation Comedy

European Social Charter Is Signed

Agency for International Development Is Established

Kennedy Expands U.S. Involvement in Vietnam

Calvin Wins the Nobel Prize for His Work on Photosynthesis

Lutuli Wins the Nobel Peace Prize

Bookchin Warns of Health Hazards of Artificial Environments

Gibbons Publishes Stalking the Wild Asparagus

Kahn Blends Architecture and Urban Planning in Dacca

Kuhn Explores Paradigm Shifts in Scientific Thought

Council of Federated Organizations Registers African Americans to Vote

Western Samoa Gains Independence from New Zealand

United States Sprays Agent Orange in Vietnam

United Nations World Food Programme Is Established

St. Jude Children’s Hospital Opens

Jacqueline Kennedy Leads a Televised Tour of the White House

Glenn Becomes the First American to Orbit Earth

Chamberlain Scores 100 Points in a Professional Basketball Game

Supreme Court Requires Population to Determine Voting Districts

Brazil Nationalizes U.S. Businesses

Discovery of the First X-Ray Source Outside the Solar System

Algeria Gains Independence from France

First Commercial Communications Satellite Is Launched

Britain Establishes the Royal National Theatre

Mariner 2 Becomes the First Spacecraft to Study Venus

Carson Publishes Silent Spring

Canada Becomes the Third Nation to Orbit a Satellite

Chávez and Huerta Form Farmworkers’ Union and Lead Grape Pickers’ Strike

Meredith Registers at the University of Mississippi

Dr. No Launches the Hugely Popular James Bond Series

Uganda Gains Independence

Thalidomide Tragedy Prompts Passage of the Kefauver-Harris Amendment

Second Vatican Council Meets

Cuban Missile Crisis

Solzhenitsyn Depicts Life in a Soviet Labor Camp in One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich

Arendt Speculates on the Banality of Evil

Audiocassette Is Introduced

Baldwin Voices Black Rage in The Fire Next Time

Le Carré Rejects the Fantasy World of Secret Agents

Schmidt Identifies Quasars

Udall Publishes The Quiet Crisis

Vonnegut’s Cat’s Cradle Expresses 1960’s Alienation

Crisis in U.N. Financing Emerges Over Peacekeeping Expenses

Penzias and Wilson Discover Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Beatles Revolutionize Popular Music

Professional Football Names First Inductees to the Pro Football Hall of Fame

Minimalism Emphasizes Objects as Art

Hochhuth Stages a Critique of Pope Pius XII’s Silence During the Holocaust

Nam June Paik Exhibits Video and Television as Art

Nureyev and Fonteyn Debut Ashton’s Marguerite and Armand

Supreme Court Establishes Defendants’ Right to an Attorney

Civil Rights Protesters Attract International Attention

Lawrence of Arabia Wins Best Picture

Pearson Becomes Canada’s Prime Minister

Organization of African Unity Is Founded

Congress Passes the Equal Pay Act

Supreme Court Limits Bible Reading in Public Schools

Hotline Is Adopted Between the United States and the Soviet Union

Lasers Are First Used in Eye Surgery

Nuclear Powers Sign the Limited Test Ban Treaty

King Delivers His “I Have a Dream” Speech

Controversial Glen Canyon Dam Is Completed

Hurricane Flora Devastates Haiti and Cuba

People with Mental Disabilities and Illnesses Assisted by Federal Act

Vietnamese Generals Overthrow Diem Regime

United Nations Condemns Racial Discrimination

President Kennedy Is Assassinated

Havel’s The Garden Party Satirizes Life Under Communism

Studebaker Announces Plans to Abandon U.S. Auto Production

General Public Utilities Announces Plans for a Commercial Nuclear Reactor

Clean Air Act Grants Federal Authority to Regulate Air Pollution

Greek and Turkish Cypriots Clash over Political Rights

Gell-Mann and Zweig Advance Quark Theory

Green Revolution

Israel Brings Water to the Negev

McLuhan Probes the Impact of Mass Media on Society

Plastic IUD Developed for Birth Control

Renfrew, Dixon, and Cann Reconstruct Ancient Near Eastern Trade Routes

Riley Completes In C

Lady Bird Johnson Begins the America Beautiful Program

Leone Renovates the Western Film Genre

Frei “Chileanizes” Chile’s Copper Industry

Lévi-Strauss Identifies Common Structures in World Myths

Marcuse Publishes Foundational New Left Works

Paul VI Visits the Holy Land

Johnson Announces War on Poverty

Hoffa Negotiates a National Trucking Agreement

Poll Taxes Are Outlawed

Kubrick Becomes a Film-Industry Leader

Clay Defeats Liston to Gain World Heavyweight Boxing Title

Kennedy-Johnson Tax Cuts Stimulate the U.S. Economy

Sara Lee Opens an Automated Factory

Dutchman Dramatizes Racial Hatred

United Nations Peace Force Is Deployed in Cyprus

Confirmation of Asbestos Hazards Sparks Widespread Litigation

Ford Introduces the Mustang

Zanzibar and Tanganyika Unite to Form Tanzania

Weiss’s Absurdist Drama Marat/Sade Is Produced

Kemeny and Kurtz Develop the BASIC Computer Language

Palestinian Refugees Form the Palestine Liberation Organization

Great Swamp Wildlife Refuge Is Dedicated

Reston, Virginia, Exemplifies the Planned Community

Three Civil Rights Workers Are Murdered

Cunningham Stages His First Dance “Event”

Congress Passes the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Congress Passes the Water Resources Research Act

Navy Conducts Sealab Expeditions

United States Enters the Vietnam War

South Africa Is Banned from the Olympic Games

Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Is Published

Johnson Signs the Interest Equalization Tax Act

Wilderness Act Is Passed

Berkeley Free Speech Movement Begins

Peyton Place Brings Serial Drama to Nighttime Television

Congress Establishes the Public Land Law Review Commission

Khrushchev Falls from Power

China Explodes Its First Nuclear Bomb

Kaunda Becomes Zambia’s First President

Johnson Is Elected President

Reformist Bolivian President Paz Estenssoro Is Toppled

Verrazano-Narrows Bridge Opens

King Wins the Nobel Peace Prize

Supreme Court Prohibits Racial Discrimination in Public Accommodations

Fatah Launches Its First Terrorist Strike on Israel

Anthropologists Claim That Ecuadorian Pottery Shows Transpacific Contact in 3000 b.c.e.

Bookchin Publishes Crisis in Our Cities

U.S. and Mexican Companies Form Maquiladoras

Assassination of Malcolm X

The Sound of Music Captivates Audiences

Soviet Cosmonaut Conducts First Space Walk

Selma-Montgomery March

U.S. Troops Occupy the Dominican Republic

Head Start Is Established to Aid Poor Children

Michener’s Best Seller The Source Explores Jewish History

Supreme Court Rules That States Cannot Ban Contraceptives in Griswold v. Connecticut

Boumédienne Seizes Power from Dictator in Algeria

Mariner Missions Conduct Mars Flybys

Mont Blanc Tunnel Between France and Italy Opens

Dylan Performs with Electric Instruments

Rolling Stones Release Out of Our Heads

Johnson Signs the Medicare and Medicaid Amendments

Congress Limits the Use of Highway Billboards

Congress Passes the Voting Rights Act

Watts Riot

Five States Take Steps to Halt Lake Erie Pollution

Delano Grape Strike

I Spy Debuts to Controversy

India-Pakistan Conflict Prompts U.N. Peacekeeping Response

Affirmative Action Is Expanded

National Endowment for the Arts Is Established

Indonesia’s Government Retaliates Against a Failed Communist Coup

Congress Strengthens Water Laws

Hart-Celler Act Reforms U.S. Immigration Law

Congress Passes the Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act

Solid Waste Disposal Act Is Passed

Paul VI Renounces the “Collective Guilt” of Jews in Christ’s Death

The Autobiography of Malcolm X Is Published

Civil War Begins in Chad

Doell and Dalrymple Discover the Magnetic Reversals of Earth’s Poles

British Parliament Abolishes the Death Penalty

Power Failure Blacks Out New York City and the Northeast

Venera 3 Is the First Spacecraft to Impact Another Planet

Military Coup Places Mobutu in Control of Congo

Nader Launches the Consumer Rights Movement

Asian Development Bank Is Chartered

Gemini VI and VII Complete an Orbital Rendezvous

Scenic Hudson Case Stops Storm King Power Plant

Ardrey Argues That Humans Are Naturally Territorial

Mandelbrot Develops Non-Euclidean Fractal Measures

Simons Identifies a 30-Million-Year-Old Primate Skull

Federal Law Requires Cigarette Warning Labels

Military Coup Brings Dictatorship to Central African Republic

Upper Volta Coup Leads to Military Government

Gandhi Serves as India’s First Female Prime Minister

Luna 9 Makes the First Successful Lunar Soft Landing

Cuba Signs a Commercial Agreement with the Soviet Union

Overthrow of Nkrumah in Ghana

Goldman’s The Lion in Winter Premieres

France Withdraws from NATO’s Military Structure

Brown Introduces Funk Music

Southern Rhodesian Freedom Fighters Begin Toppling White Supremacist Government

Cultural Revolution Begins in China

Fiat Builds a Factory in the Soviet Union

Surveyor Program Prepares NASA for Piloted Moon Landings

NFL-AFL Merger Creates a Sports-Industry Giant

Police Required to Inform Arrested Persons of Their Rights

Lunar Orbiter 1 Sends Photographs of the Moon’s Surface

Animal Welfare Act Regulates Research Using Animals

Warhol’s Underground Film The Chelsea Girls Finds Mainstream Audience

Breuer Designs a Building for the Whitney Museum

Khama Leads a Stable Botswana

Black Panther Party Is Organized

Congress Passes the Endangered Species Preservation Act

Mining Debris Buries Welsh Village

United Nations Revokes South African Mandate over South-West Africa

National Organization for Women Forms to Protect Women’s Rights

First Tidal Power Station Begins Operation

Jensen Finds PCBs in Animal Tissues

United Nations Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Is Adopted

Canada Implements Its National Health Plan

Davis Constructs a Solar Neutrino Detector

Celan Introduces the Concept of Poetic “Breath-Measure”

Derrida Enunciates the Principles of Deconstruction

Favaloro Develops the Artery Bypass Surgery

Soviet Intellectuals Begin to Rebel Against Party Policy

World Health Organization Intensifies Its Campaign to Eradicate Smallpox

Floppy Disks Are Developed for Computer Data Storage

Development of Very Long Baseline Interferometry

Brooke Becomes the First African American U.S. Senator Since Reconstruction

National Football League Holds Its First Super Bowl

Nyerere Outlines Socialist Policy in the Arusha Declaration

Constitution Provides for the Incapacity of the President

White Explores the Judeo-Christian Roots of Environmental Problems

Oil Tanker Torrey Canyon Runs Aground

Supreme Court Rules Against a Procter & Gamble Merger

Greek Coup Leads to Military Dictatorship

McDonnell and Douglas Aircraft Companies Merge

Expo 67 Features Innovative Architecture

García Márquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude Is Published

Greenhouse Effect Is First Predicted

Hendrix Releases Acid Rock Album Are You Experienced?

Biafra’s Secession Triggers Nigerian Civil War

Beatles Release Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band

Scientists Debate the Addition of Antibiotics to Animal Feed

Israel Defeats Arab States in the Six-Day War

Israel Attacks the USS Liberty

Monterey Pop Festival Inaugurates the “Summer of Love”

European Economic Community Adopts the Common Agricultural Policy

United States Joins the International Biological Program

Freedom of Information Act Goes into Effect

AT&T Is Ordered to Reduce Charges

Race Rioting Erupts in Detroit

Kornberg and Colleagues Synthesize Biologically Active DNA

Association of Southeast Asian Nations Is Formed

Environmental Defense Fund Is Founded

Thieu Is Elected President of South Vietnam

Rowan and Martin’s Laugh-In Satirizes Social Upheaval

Marshall Becomes the First African American Supreme Court Justice

Execution of Che Guevara

Outer Space Treaty Takes Effect

Zero Population Growth Movement Begins

United Nations Issues a Declaration on Equality for Women

Barghoorn and Colleagues Find Amino Acids in 3-Billion-Year-Old Rocks

United Nations Security Council Adopts Resolution 242

Barnard Performs the First Human Heart Transplant

Ceau?escu Is Elected President of Romania

Habash Founds the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine

Congress Enacts the Age Discrimination in Employment Act

Canada Establishes the Experimental Lakes Area

Friedman, Kendall, and Taylor Discover Quarks

Glaser Proposes an Orbiting Solar Power Station

Huntington Examines Processes of Change in Developing Countries

Mitchell and Shook Found the Dance Theatre of Harlem

The Population Bomb Is Published

Drought Extends the Reach of the Sahara Desert

Johnson Restricts Direct Foreign Investment

Congress Enacts the Bilingual Education Act

British Leyland Motor Corporation Is Formed

North Korea Seizes the USS Pueblo

Tet Offensive Begins

Kerner Commission Explores the Causes of Civil Disorders

First 911 Call in the United States Is Made

Bell Discovers Pulsars

Alaskan Oil Discovery Sparks Controversy

Wheeler Refers to Collapsed Stars as “Black Holes”

Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Fair Housing Act Outlaws Discrimination in Housing

Indian Civil Rights Act Is Passed

United Methodist Church Is Formed

Radical Musical Hair Opens on Broadway

French Students and Workers Rebel Against the Political Order

Handke’s Kaspar Dramatizes Language Theory

Proclamation of Tehran Sets Human Rights Goals

Congress Passes the Consumer Credit Protection Act

Robert F. Kennedy Is Assassinated

Supreme Court Upholds Ban on Housing Discrimination

Trudeau Serves as Canadian Prime Minister

Congress Acts to Control Noise Pollution

Roman Catholic Church Reaffirms Its Position Against Birth Control

Theatres Act Ends Censorship of British Drama

Glomar Challenger Begins Collecting Ocean-Floor Samples

Congress Passes the Architectural Barriers Act

Wholesome Poultry Products Act Is Passed

Soviet Union Invades Czechoslovakia

Chicago Riots Mar the Democratic National Convention

Carroll Becomes the First African American Woman to Star as a Non-domestic on Television

60 Minutes Becomes the First Televised Newsmagazine

Caetano Becomes Prime Minister of Portugal

Johnson Establishes North Cascades National Park

Tlatelolco Massacre Stuns Mexico

Wild and Scenic Rivers and Trails System Acts Are Passed

Omar Torrijos Ousts Arias in Panama

Lauren Creates the Polo Clothing Line

The Whole Earth Catalog and Mother Earth News Appear

Chisholm Becomes the First African American Woman Elected to Congress

Nixon Is Elected President

Brezhnev Doctrine Mandates Soviet Control of Satellite Nations

Statutes of Limitations Are Rendered Inapplicable to War Crimes

Soviet Union Opens a Tidal Power Station

Cassin Is Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

Kawabata Wins the Nobel Prize in Literature

Brazil Begins Era of Intense Repression

Hardin Argues for Population Control

German Measles Vaccine Is Developed

Halberstam Reflects on American Involvement in Vietnam in The Best and the Brightest

Parents Anonymous Is Established to Treat Abusive Parents

Puzo Chronicles Organized Crime in The Godfather

Roth Publishes Portnoy’s Complaint

Soviet Union Declares Lake Baikal a Protected Zone

Soyuz 4 and 5 Spacecraft Dock in Orbit

Sierra Club Helps Block Dams on the Colorado River

Offshore Oil Well Spill Blankets Santa Barbara Coastline

The Saturday Evening Post Publishes Its Final Issue

Hafez al-Assad Takes Control of Syria

Sino-Soviet Tensions Mount Along the Ussuri River Border

Union of Concerned Scientists Is Founded

Meir Becomes Prime Minister of Israel

De Gaulle Steps Down

Brower Forms Friends of the Earth

Russell Retires as the Celtics Take an Eleventh NBA Title

Nimeiri Takes Charge in Khartoum

Pesticide Poisons the Rhine River

Polluted Cuyahoga River Bursts into Flames

Supreme Court Extends Protection Against Double Jeopardy

Stonewall Rebellion Ignites Modern Lesbian and Gay Rights Movement

Canada’s Official Languages Act

Easy Rider Captures the Spirit of 1960’s Youth

Soccer War

First Humans Land on the Moon

Nixon Doctrine Is Unveiled

British Troops Restore Order in Northern Ireland

Davis Introduces Jazz-Rock Fusion

First Use of Bubble Memory in Computers

Woodstock Music Festival Marks the Climax of 1960’s Youth Culture

Hurricane Camille Devastates the U.S. Gulf Coast

Military Takes Charge in Libya

Congress Begins Hearings on Overspending for the C-5 A Galaxy

African Convention Expands the Definition of Refugees

Organization of the Islamic Conference Is Established

Monty Python’s Flying Circus Prompts a Cult Following

The Forsyte Saga Anticipates the Television Miniseries

National Institute of Mental Health Report “Normalizes” Homosexuality

Canada Announces Ban on Hunting Baby Seals

Pittsburgh Residents Form the Group Against Smog and Pollution

Artificial Sweetener Cyclamate Is Banned from U.S. Consumer Markets

Somali Democracy Ends in a Military Coup

Sesame Street Revolutionizes Children’s Programming

Apollo 12 Mission Marks Second Moon Landing

American Indians Occupy Alcatraz Island

DDT Ban Signals New Environmental Awareness

Inter-American Court of Human Rights Is Established

Birth of the European Monetary Union Project

Barton and Hassel Share the Nobel Prize for Determining the Three-Dimensional Shapes of Organic Compounds

International Labor Organization Wins the Nobel Peace Prize

Arafat Becomes Chair of the Palestine Liberation Organization

First Jumbo Jet Is Delivered to Airlines

Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act Is Approved

Design for the Real World Calls for Industrial Design Reform

Reich Publishes The Greening of America

U.S. Voting Age Is Lowered to Eighteen

National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 Is Signed

Flood Tests Baseball’s Reserve Clause

M*A*S*H Satirizes Warfare

Natural Resources Defense Council Is Founded

Patton’s Historical Realism Leads to Best Picture and Actor Awards

Alpine Avalanches Prompt Snow-Management Programs

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Goes into Effect

Brandt Meets Stoph

Canada Bans Commercial Fishing in Lakes St. Clair and Erie

Cigarette Ads Are Banned from Broadcast Media

Congress Mandates Oil-Spill Liabilities and Penalties

Apollo 13 Crew Survives Onboard Explosion

First Earth Day Is Celebrated

Broadway’s First “Concept” Musical Premieres

United States Invades Cambodia

Kent State Massacre

British Parliament Passes the Equal Pay Act of 1970

Earthquake and Avalanche in Peru Kill More than Sixty Thousand People

Trans-Amazon Highway Is Announced

Future Shock Explores the Impact of Change

Congress Ratifies the National Council on Indian Opportunity

Cousteau Announces Large Decline in Ocean Life

Allende Wins a Close Election in Chile

The Mary Tyler Moore Show Examines Women’s Roles

Sadat Becomes President of Egypt

Pollution Fears Prompt Invention of Phosphate-Free Detergent

Public Broadcasting Service Airs Its First Program

Congress Passes the RICO Act

Canada Invokes War Measures Act Against Quebec Separatists

Congress Passes the Fair Credit Reporting Act

Resource Recovery Act Is Passed

Congress Creates Amtrak to Save Passenger Rail Service

Soviet Rover Lunokhod 1 Lands on the Moon

Moscow Human Rights Committee Is Founded

Bhola Cyclone Devastates East Pakistan

Calley Is Court-Martialed for My Lai Massacre

Environmental Protection Agency Is Created

Chávez Is Jailed for Organizing a National Lettuce Boycott

United Nations Volunteers Program Is Established

Borlaug Receives the Nobel Prize for His Work on World Hunger

New Mexico’s Blue Lake Region Is Returned to the Taos Pueblo

European Consortium Creates Airbus Industrie

Family Planning Services and Population Research Act Extends Reproductive Rights

Nixon Signs the Occupational Safety and Health Act

Congress Amends the Clean Air Act

Congress Approves the Mining and Minerals Act