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The Reference Shelf: Propaganda & Misinformation

Table of Contents

Preface



1 The Story of Untruth



Defining Propaganda and Misinformation



The History of “Fake News” in America



“Disinformation” Is the Word of the Year—And a Sign of What’s to Come



How Woodrow Wilson’s Propaganda Machine Changed American Journalism



What the Pope Gets Wrong about Fake News



Nineteenth-Century Nihilists Foretold Our Era



A Short Guide to the History of “Fake News” and Disinformation



2 Our Current Media Environment



Fake News, the Coronavirus, and the 2020 Election



NPR Poll: Majority of Americans Believe Trump Encourages Election Interference



Trump’s Favorite Tabloid Worried Its Saudi Propaganda Was as Bad as It Looked



CNN vs. Fox: Why These Two Cable Networks Can’t Stop Talking about Each Other



Social Media Struggles to Counter Coronavirus Misinformation



Clinton Backer at Facebook Debunks Clinton Claims



The Propagandist and the Censor



3 The Effects of Propaganda



The Subtle Influence of Misinformation



Why Do People Fall for Fake News?



Why the Hysteria Around the “Fake News Epidemic” Is a Distraction



The Myth of the Echo Chamber



The Real Consequences of Fake News



Echo Chambers May Not Be as Dangerous as You Think, New Study Finds



4 Big Tech and the New AI



AI, Bots, and Regulation



Not Your Father’s Bots



Google’s Algorithm Isn’t Biased, It’s Just Not Human



Why the Fight Against Disinformation, Sham Accounts and Trolls Won’t Be Any Easier in 2020



The Information War Is On: Are We Ready for It?



Detecting Fake News at Its Source



We’re Fighting Fake News AI Bots by Using More AI: That’s a Mistake



How Social Networks Set the Limits of What We Can Say Online



5 Navigating Misinformation



Ways to Combat Fake News



SPJ Code of Ethics



How to Help Kids Navigate Fake News and Misinformation Online



A College Reading List for the Post-Truth Era



10 Journalism Brands Where You Find Real Facts Rather Than Alternative Facts



Fact Checkers Say These Are the Best Fact-Checks They Did During This Decade



Bibliography



Websites