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Salem Press

American Reformers, 2nd Edition

Table of Contents

Publisher’s Note



Preface



List of Contributors



Abbott, Grace



Acuña, Rodolfo “Rudy”



Addams, Jane



Adler, Felix



Agassiz, Elizabeth Cabot Cary



Alcott. (Amos) Bronson



Alcott, William Andrus



Alinsky, Saul David



Allen, Richard



Altgeld, John Peter



Ameringer, Oscar



Ames, Jessie Daniel



Anderson, Elizabeth Preston



Andrews, Fannie Fern Phillips



Andrews, John Bertram



Andrews, Stephen Pearl



Annexe, Mathilde Franziska Giesler



Anthony, Susan Brownell



Anzaldúa, Gloria Evangelina



Armstrong, Samuel Chapman



Atkinson, Edward



Avery, Rachel G. Foster



Bacon, Albion Fellows



Bagley, Sarah George



Baker, Ray Stannard



Baker, Sara Josephine



Balch, Emily Greene



Baldwin, James Arthur



Baldwin, Roger Nash



Ballou, Adin



Barker, Wharton



Barnard, Kate



Barnum, Gertrude



Barrett, Janie Porter



Barrows, Samuel June



Barry, Leonora Marie Kearney



Barton, Clarissa (Clara) Harlowe



Beard, Mary Ritter



Beecher, Catharine Esther



Beecher, Henry Ward



Beecher, Isabella



Beecher, Lyman



Bellamy, Edward



Bellanca, Dorothy Jacobs



Belmont, Alva Erskine Smith Van-Derbilt



Berger, Victor Louis



Bethune, Mary Jane Mcleod



Bigelow, John



Birney, James Gillespie



Black, James



Blackwell, Alice Stone



Blackwell, Antoinette Louisa Brown



Blackwell, Elizabeth



Blackwell, Emily



Blatch, Harriot Eaton Stanton



Bliss, William Dwight Porter



Bloomer, Amelia Jenks



Bloor, Ella Reeve Ware Cohen Omholt (Mother Bloor)



Boissevain, Inez Milholland



Bok, Edward William



Bonaparte, Charles Joseph



Bonney, Mary Lucinda



Bonnin, Gertrude Simmons



Booth, Maud Elizabeth Charles-Worth Ballington



Bowditch, Henry Ingersoll



Brace, Charles Loring



Bradwell, Myra Colby



Brandeis, Louis Dembitz



Bratton, William J.



Breckinridge, Madeline Mcdowell



Breckinridge, Sophonisba Preston



Brent, Margaret



Briggs, Cyril



Briggs, Lloyd Vernon



Brisbane, Albert



Broun, Matthew Heywood Campbell



Brown, Antoinette Louisa



Brown, John



Brown, Martha Mcclellan



Brown, Olympia



Brownson, Orestes Augustus



Bryan, William Jennings



Buchanan, Patrick “Pat” Joseph



Burkitt, Frank



Burritt, Elihu



Cabet, Étienne



Cabot, Richard Clarke



Campbell, Helen Stuart



Carmack, Edward Ward



Carmichael, Stokely



Carse, Matilda Bradley



Carson, Rachel Louise



Carver, George Washington



Catt, Carrie Clinton Lane Chapman



Chace, Elizabeth Buffum



Chandler, Lucinda Banister



Channing, William Ellery



Chapman, Maria Weston



Chávez, César Estrada



Cheney, Ednah Dow Littlehale



Child, David Lee



Child, Lydia Maria Francis



Childs, Richard Spencer



Claflin, Victoria And Claflin, Tennessee Celeste



Clay, Cassius Marcellus



Clemens, Samuel Langhorne (Mark Twain)



Coates, Ta-Nehisi



Coffin, Levi



Coit, Stanton



Colby, Clara Dorothy Bewick



Collins, Ellen



Colman, Julia



Coman, Katharine



Commons, John Rogers



Comstock, Anthony



Considerant, Victor



Converse, Harriet Arnot Maxwell



Coxey, Jacob Sechler



Crandall, Prudence



Crane, Caroline Julia Bartlett



Croly, David Goodman



Croly, Jane Cunningham (“Jennie June”)



Croly, Herbert David



Crosby, Ernest Howard



Crosby, Howard



Cullors, Patrisse



Cunningham, Kate Richards O’hare



Curtis, George William



Dall, Caroline Wells Healey



Dana, Richard Henry Jr.



Dana, Richard Henry 3Rd



Darrow, Clarence Seward



Davis, Andrew Jackson



Davis, Angela



Davis, Katharine Bement



Davis, Paulina Kellogg Wright



Day, Dorothy



Debs, Eugene Victor



De Cleyre, Voltairine



Delany, Martin Robison



De Leon, Daniel



Demorest, William Jennings



Dennett, Mary Coffin Ware



Deloria, Jr., Vine Victor



Dewey, John



Dewey, Melvil



Dickinson, Anna Elizabeth



Diggs, Annie Leporte



Dike, Samuel Warren



Divine, Major (Father)



Dix, Dorothea Lynde



Dobson, James C.



Dodge, David Low



Donnelly, Ignatius



Dorr, Thomas Wilson



Doster, Frank



Douglass, Frederick



Douglass, Sarah Mapps Douglass



Dow, Neal



Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt



Duniway, Abigail Jane Scott



Eastman, Crystal



Eastman, Max Forrester



Eddy, Mary Morse Baker Glover Patterson



Eddy, Thomas



Elliott, John Lovejoy



Emerson, Ralph Waldo



Emery, Sarah Elizabeth Van De Vort



Evans, Elizabeth Gardiner Glen-Dower



Evans, George Henry



Falwell, Sr., Jerry



Farnham, Eliza Wood Burhans



Felton, Rebecca Ann Latimer



Field, David Dudley



Filene, Edward Albert



Finney, Charles Grandison



Fitzpatrick, John



Fletcher, Alice Cunningham



Flexner, Abraham



Flower, Benjamin Orange



Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley



Follen, Charles



Foran, Martin A.



Ford, Patrick



Forten, Charlotte



Forten, James



Fortune, Timothy Thomas



Foster, Abby (Abigail) Kelley



Foster, William Zebulon



Fowler, Lydia Folger



Fowler, Orson Squire



Frankfurter, Felix



Frazier, Lynn Joseph



Friedan, Betty



Friedman, Milton



Fuller, (Sarah) Margaret



Funk, Isaac Kauffman



Furuseth, Andrew



Gage, Frances Dana Barker



Gage, Matilda Joslyn



Gales, Joseph



Gardener, Helen Hamilton



Garnet, Henry Highland



Garrison, William Lloyd



Garvey, Marcus Mosiah Jr.



Garza, Alicia



Gaston Ernest Berry



George, Henry



Gibbons, Abigail Hopper



Gilbert, Linda



Gillespie, Mabel Edna



Gilman, Charlotte Anna Perkins Stetson



Godkin, Edwin Lawrence



Godwin, Parke



Goldman, Emma



Goldwater, Barry Morris



Gompers, Samuel



Gordon, Anna Adams



Graham, Isabella Marshall



Graham, Sylvester



Gratz, Rebecca



Greeley, Horace



Green, Frances Harriet Whipple



Gresham, Isaac Newton



Griffing, Josephine Sophia White



Griffith, Goldsborough Sappington



Grimké, Charlotte Forten



Grimké, Sarah Moore



Grimké, Angelina Emily



Gronlund, Laurence



Gulick, Luther Halsey Jr.



Gutiárrez, José Angel



Haldeman-Julius, Emanuel



Hale, Edward Everett



Hall, Emma Amelia



Hamer, Fannie Lou Townsend



Hamilton, Alice



Hapgood, Hutchins



Hapgood, Norman



Harlan, John Marshall



Harper, Ida A. Husted



Harris, Thomas Lake



Harrison, Hubert Henry



Hart, Hastings Hornell



Harvey, William Hope



Hasbrouck, Lydia Sayer



Haskell, Ella Knowles



Hawkins, John Henry Willis



Hay, Mary Garrett



Hayden, Tom



Hays, Arthur Garfield



Haywood, William Dudley (“Big Bill”)



Hazard, Thomas



Helper, Hinton Rowan



Henry, Alice



Herbst, Josephine Frey



Hewins, Caroline Maria



Heywood, Angela Fiducia Tilton



Heywood, Ezra Hervey



Hicks, Elias



Higginson, Thomas Wentworth Storrow



Hill, Joe



Hill, Patty Smith



Hillquit, Morris



Hodder, Jessie Donaldson



Holbrook, Josiah



Hooker, Isabella Beecher



Hopkins, Harry Lloyd



Hopper, Isaac Tatem



Hostos, Eugenio Maria De



Howard, Milford Wriarson



Howe, Frederic Clemson



Howe, Julia Ward



Howe, Samuel Gridley



Howells, William Dean



Huerta, Dolores



Hunt, Harriot Kezia



Hutchins, Grace



Hutchinson, Anne Marbury



Ingersoll, Robert Green



Irons, Martin



Ivins, William Mills



Jackson, Gardner (Pat)



Jackson, Helen Maria Fiske Hunt



Jackson, Jesse



Jay, William



Jefferson, Thomas



Johnson, Ellen Cheney



Johnson, Magnus



Johnson, Tom Loftin



Jones, Mary Harris (“Mother Jones”)



Julian, George Washington



Kehew, Mary Morton Kimball



Kelley, Florence



Kelley, Oliver Hudson



Kellogg, Edward



Kellogg, John Harvey



Kellogg, Paul Underwood



Kelly, Florence Finch



King, Dan



King, Martin Luther, Jr.



Klein, Naomi



Kneeland, Abner



Kramer, Larry



Ladd, William



La Follette, Robert Marion



Laidler, Harry W(Ellington)



Langer, William



Lathrop, Julia Clifford



Lawes, Lewis Edward



Lay, Benjamin



Lease, Mary Elizabeth Clyens



Leavitt, Joshua



Lee, Ann



Lemke, William Frederick



Lindsey, Benjamin Barr



Leo, Leonard



Livermore, Mary Ashton Rice



Lloyd, Henry Demarest



Lockwood, Belva Ann Bennett



Loftus, George Sperry



London, Jack



London, Meyer



Long, Huey Pierce



Loucks, Henry Langford



Lovejoy, Elijah Parish



Lowell, Josephine Shaw



Lozier, Clemence Sophia Harned



Lundy, Benjamin



Luther, Seth



Lyon, Mary



Martinez, Elizabeth “Betita”



Mccann, Alfred Watterson



Mccarthy, Charles



Mcclure, Samuel Sidney



Mcdougall, Frances Harriet Whipple Green



Mcdowell, Mary Eliza



Mcglynn, Edward



Mclallin, Stephen



Maclure, William



Mcneill, George Edwin



Macune, Charles William



Malcolm X



Mann, Horace



Marcantonio, Vito Anthony



Marcuse, Herbert



Marot, Helen



Marsh, John



Martyn, Sarah Towne Smith



Marwedel, Emma Jacobina Christina



Masquerier, Lewis



Maurin, Peter Aristide



May, Samuel Joseph



Mckesson, Deray



Means, Russell Charles



Metz, Christian



Milk, Harvey



Miller, Elizabeth Smith



Mitchel, John Purroy



Moses, Robert



Most, Johann Joseph



Mott, Lucretia Coffin



Mussey, Ellen Spencer



Muste, Abraham Johannes



Nader, Ralph



Nast, Thomas



Nation, Carry Amelia Moore Gloyd



Newton, Huey Percy



Nichols, Clarina Irene Howard



Nichols, Mary Sargeant Neal Gove



Norris, George William



Noyes, John Humphrey



Nugent, Thomas Lewis



Nye, Gerald Prentice



O’hare, Kate Richards



Older, Fremont



Olson, Floyd Bjerstjerne



O’reilly, Leonora



Osborn, Charles



Osborne, Thomas Mott



O’sullivan, Mary Kenney



Owen, Robert



Packard, Elizabeth Parsons Ware



Paine, Thomas



Palmer, Elihu



Parker, Theodore



Parkhurst, Charles Henry



Parsons, Albert Richard



Parsons, Elsie Worthington Clews



Paul, Alice



Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer



Penn, William



Perkins, Frances



Phillips, Wendell



Pillsbury, Parker



Pinchot, Amos Richards Eno



Pinchot, Gifford



Pingree, Hazen Stuart



Polk, Leonidas Lafayette



Post, Louis Freeland



Powderly, Terence Vincent



Powell, Adam Clayton Jr.



Preston Anderson, Elizabeth



Priestley, Joseph



Quincy, Josiah



Quinton, Amelia Stone



Ramos Ávalos, Jorge Gilberto



Rambaut, Mary Lucinda Bonney



Randolph, Asa Philip



Rankin, Jeannette Pickering



Rantoul, Robert Jr.



Rauschenbusch, Walter



Redpath, James



Reed, John Silas



Regan, Agnes Gertrude



Remond, Sarah Parker



Reno, Milo



Riis, Jacob August



Ripley, George



Ripley, Sophia Willard Dana



Rivera, Sylvia



Robins, Margaret Dreier



Robinson, Harriet Jane Hanson



Roosevelt, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt



Roosevelt, Theodore



Rose, Ernestine Louise Siismondi Potowski



Round, William Marshall Fitts



Roybal, Edward Ross



Rush, Benjamin



Russell, Charles Edward



Russell, Howard Hyde



Ryan, John Augustine



Sanborn, Franklin Benjamin



Sanders, Elizabeth Elkins



Sanger, Margaret Louise Higgins



Savio, Mario



Schindler, Solomon



Schlafly, Phyllis Mcalpin



Schneiderman, Rose



Schoff, Hannah Kent



Schurz, Carl



Schwimmer, Rosika



Scudder, Vida



Severance, Caroline Maria Seymour



Sharpton, Al



Shaw, Anna Howard



Shays, Daniel



Simkhovitch, Mary Kingsbury



Simpson, Jeremiah (Jerry)



Sinclair, Upton Beall Jr.



Skidmore, Thomas



Smith, Abby Hadassah



Smith, Julia Evelina



Smith, Gerrit



Smith, Hannah Whitall



Spingarn, Joel Elias



Spooner, Lysander



Stanton, Elizabeth Cady



Steffens, Joseph Lincoln



Steinem, Gloria



Stephens, Uriah Smith



Stevens, Alzina Ann Parsons



Stevens, Lillian Marion Norton Ames



Stevens, Thaddeus



Steward, Ira



Stewart, Alvan



Stewart, Eliza Daniel Coover



Stickley, Gustav



Still, William



Stoddard, Cora Frances



Stokes, Isaac Newton Phelps



Stokes, Rose Harriet Pastor



Stone, Lucy



Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher



Sumner, Charles



Sunderland, Eliza Jane Read



Swinton, John



Swisshelm, Jane Grey Cannon



Sylvis, William H.



Tappan, Arthur



Tappan, Lewis



Tarbell, Ida Minerva



Thomas, John Lloyd



Thomas, Martha Carey



Thomas, Norman Mattoon



Thoreau, Henry David



Tibbles, Thomas Henry



Todd, Marion Marsh



Tolman, William Howe



Tometi, Opal



Tourgée, Albion Winegar



Townley, Arthur Charles



Townsend, Francis Everett



Troup, Augusta Lewis



Trueblood, Benjamin Franklin



Truth, Sojourner (Isabella Van Wagener)



Tubman, Harriet



Tucker, Benjamin Ricketson



Upton, Harriet Taylor



U’ren, William Simon



Van Vorst, Marie Louise



Vargas, Jose Antonio



Veblen, Thorstein Bunde



Velásquez, William C.



Villard, Fanny Garrison



Villard, Oswald Garrison



Vincent, Henry



Vorse, Mary Marvin Heaton



Wald, Lillian D.



Walker, Mary Edwards



Wallace, Zerelda Gray Sanders



Walling, William English



Ward, Lester Frank



Warren, Earl



Warren, Josiah



Washington, Booker T(Aliaferro)



Watson, Thomas Edward



Wayland, Julius Augustus



Webster, Noah



Weld, Theodore Dwight



Wells-Barnett, Ida Bell



Wheeler, Wayne Bidwell



Whipple, Henry Benjamin



White, Alfred Tredway



White, Ellen Gould Harmon



Whitman, Walt



Whittier, John Greenleaf



Wiley, Harvey Washington



Wilkins, Roy



Wilkinson, Jemima



Willard, Emma Hart



Willard, Frances Elizabeth Caroline



Williams, Aubrey Willis



Williams, Elizabeth Sprague



Williams, Roger



Wilshire, Henry Gaylord



Wise, Isaac Mayer



Wood, Edith Elmer



Woodhull, Victoria Claflin



Claflin, Tennessee Celeste



Woolley, John Granville



Woolman, John



Woolsey, Abby Howland & J.S. & Georgeanne



Jane Stuart Woolsey



Georgeanna Muirson Woolsey Bacon



Worcester, Noah



Wright, Elizur



Wright, Frances



Wright, Henry Clarke



Young, Whitney Moore Jr.



Zakrzewska, Marie Elizabeth



Zenger, John Peter



Reform Categories in Alphabetical Order & Their Reformers



Reformers in Alphabetical Order & Their Category of Reform



Photographic Credits...