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Encyclopedia of Environmental Issues, 3rd Edition

Table of Contents

Publisher’s Note

Editor’s Introduction

Contributor List

Abbey, Edward

Accounting for nature

Acid deposition and acid rain

Acid mine drainage

Adams, Ansel

Aerosols and the environment

African elephant poaching

Africa’s ecosystem

Agenda 21

Agent Orange (AO)

Agricultural chemicals

Agricultural revolution

Agricultural runoff

Agriculture: history & overview

Agriculture: modern problems

Agriculture: traditional

Air conditioning and air-cooling technology

Air pollution policy to 2010

Air Quality Index (AQI)

Airborne particulates

Alar and carcinogen controversy

Alaska Highway

Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA)

Alliance of Small Island States

Alternative energy sources

Alternative fuels

Alternatively fueled vehicles

Amazon River basin

American alligator and conservation efforts

American bison

Amoco Cadiz oil spill

Amory, Cleveland

Amphibians and habitat destruction

Animal rights movement

Animal testing

Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC)

Antarctic Treaty


Antibiotics as environmental waste


Antinuclear movement

Antiquities Act

Appropriate technology (AT) movement





Aral Sea destruction

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Argo Merchant oil spill

Arsenic in water supplies

Asbestos as carcinogenic material

Asbestos releases in Silver Bay, Minnesota



Aswan High Dam

Atmospheric inversions

Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)

Automobile emissions

Bacillus thuringiensis

Back-to-the-land movement

Bacterial resistance & public health

Balance of nature

Basel Convention & movement of hazardous waste

Beach erosion

Bees & other pollinators

Benefit-cost analysis

Best available technologies to reduce pollution

Bhopal disaster

Bikini Atoll bombing




Biodiversity action plans

Biodiversity: Why Preserve Biodiversity?


Biogeochemical cycles



Biomass conversion

Biomes & environmental issues

Biopesticides & the environment


Biopiracy & bioprospecting




Biosphere 2

Biosphere reserves & wilderness issues

Biotechnology & genetic engineering

Black lung

Black Sea & pollution

Black Wednesday

Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)

Bookchin, Murray

Boreal forests & climate change

Borlaug, Norman

Bovine growth hormone

BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

Braer oil spill

Brazilian radioactive powder release

Breeder reactors

Brent Spar occupation

Brockovich, Erin

Brower, David

Brown, Lester



Brundtland Commission

Brundtland, Gro Harlem

Burroughs, John

Captive breeding

Carbon dioxide air capture

Carbon footprint

Carbon monoxide


Carter, Jimmy

Cash for Clunkers

Catalytic converters

Center for Health, Environment, and Justice (CHEJ)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Certified wood

Chalk River nuclear reactor explosion

Chelyabinsk nuclear waste explosion

Chernobyl nuclear accident

Chipko Andolan movement




Climax communities


Cloud seeding

Club of Rome

Coal ash storage

Coastal Zone Management Act

Cogeneration power systems

Colorado River

Commercial fishing

Commoner, Barry

Community gardens

Compact fluorescent lightbulbs


Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

Congo River basin

Coniferous forests

Conservation biology

Conservation easements

Conservation movement

Conservation of natural resources

Conservation of polar bears

Conservation of rhinoceros populations

Conservation of savannas

Conservation of the whooping crane

Conservation of wolves

Conservation of Yosemite Valley

Conservation policy

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

Continental shelves and pollution

Controversy over wild horses and burros

Convention on Biological Diversity

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

Corporate average fuel economy standards

Côte d’Ivoire toxic waste incident

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)

Cousteau, Jacques

Cross-Florida Barge Canal

Cultural eutrophication

Cuyahoga River fires

Dams and reservoirs

Darling, Jay

Darwin, Charles

Dead zones

Debt-for-nature swaps

Deciduous forests

Decline of the ozone layer

Deep ecology


Department of Energy, U.S.

Department of the Interior, U.S.


Deserts & dunes

Destruction of the northern spotted owl’s habitat

Destruction of the rain forests

Detoxification (environmental)

Detrimental health effects of smog

Development gap

Diamond v. Chakrabarty

Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT)



Disposable diapers in landfills

Dolly the sheep

Dolphin-safe tuna


Drinking water


Dubos, René

Ducktown, Tennessee

Dust Bowl ecological disaster

Earth Day

Earth First!

Earth resources satellites

Earth-sheltered construction

Eat local movement

Eaubonne, Françoise d’

Echo Park Dam opposition




Ecological economics

Ecological footprint

Ecology as a concept

Ecology in history

Ecosystem of South America


Ecosystems of Australia and New Zealand

Ecosystems of Central America and the Caribbean


Ecoterrorism and radical environmentalists


Ecotourism: Pros and Cons

Ehrlich, Paul R.

Electronic waste

Eminent domain

Emissions from Yokkaichi, Japan

Emissions in Sudbury, Ontario

Endangered species and species protection policy

Energy policy

Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975

Energy-efficiency labeling

Environment Canada

Environmental benefits of electric vehicles

Environmental benefits of rain gardens

Environmental birth defects

Environmental causes of cancer clusters

Environmental challenges of the Pacific Islands

Environmental determinism

Environmental economics

Environmental education

Environmental effects of coal mining and coal burning

Environmental engineering

Environmental ethics

Environmental hazards of shantytowns

Environmental health

Environmental health of the Nile River

Environmental illnesses

Environmental impact assessments and statements

Environmental impact of genetically altered bacteria

Environmental impact of killer bees

Environmental Impact of Mount Tambora Eruption

Environmental impact of zebra mussels

Environmental impacts of desalination

Environmental impacts of raising cattle

Environmental impacts of road systems and freeways

Environmental justice and environmental racism

Environmental law, international

Environmental law, U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and public health

Environmental refugees

Environmental security

Environmental torts

Erosion and erosion control


European Diploma of Protected Areas

European Environment Agency (EEA)

European environmental policies

European Green parties


Evacuation of Times Beach, Missouri

Everglades preservation


Extinctions and species loss

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)

Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA)

First animal clone and its implications

Fish and Wildlife Act

Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S.

Fish kills

Fisheries and environmentalism

Flavr Savr tomato

Flood Control Act (FCA)

Floodplains and environmental threats



Food and Agriculture Organization

Food chains

Food irradiation

Food quality regulation

Foreman, Dave

Forest and range policy

Forest management

Forest Service, U.S.

Forest Summit

Fossey, Dian

Fossil fuels and environmental degradation

Franklin Dam opposition

Free market environmentalism

Friends of the Earth International

Gaia hypothesis

Ganges River


Gasoline and gasoline additives

Gene patents

General Mining Act

Genetically altered bacteria

Genetically engineered pharmaceuticals

Genetically modified foods

Genetically modified organisms and environmentalism


Geographic information systems

Geothermal energy

Gibbons, Euell

Gibbs, Lois

Gila Wilderness

Gill nets and drift nets

Glacial melting

Glen Canyon Dam

Global Biodiversity Assessment

Global Environment Facility

Global ReLeaf

Global warming


Gore, Al

Grand Canyon and pollution

Grand Coulee Dam

Grazing & grasslands

Great Barrier Reef and preservation efforts

Great Lakes International Joint Commission (IJC)

Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

Green buildings

Green marketing

Green movement and Green parties

Green Plan

Green Revolution


Greenhouse effect

Greenhouse gases and air pollution



Groundwater pollution

Group of Ten

Gulf War oil burning

Gyres and climate change

Habitat destruction

Habitats & biomes

Hanford Nuclear Reservation

Hansen, James E.

Hardin, Garrett

Hawk’s Nest Tunnel disaster

Hazardous and toxic substance regulation

Hazardous waste

Health problems caused by exposure to lead

Heat islands

Heat pumps

Heavy metals

Hetch Hetchy Dam

High-yield wheat

Homestead Act

Hoover Dam

Horizontal gene transfer

Hunting and environmental regulation

Hurricanes and Typhoons

Hybrid vehicles


Hydrogen economy

Impact of dredging on water quality and bottom-dwelling organisms

Impact of ocean currents on global climate

Incineration of waste products

Inconvenient Truth, An

Indicator species

Indigenous peoples and nature preservation

Indoor air pollution

Industrial Revolution and pollution

Integrated pest management

Intensive farming

Intergenerational justice

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Internal combustion engines

International Atomic Energy Agency

International Biological Program (IBP)

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

International effort to save condors from extinction

International environmental law

International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)

International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)

International Union for Conservation of Nature

International whaling ban

International Whaling Commission (IWC)

Introduced and exotic species

Iron fertilization


Italian dioxin release

Ivory trade

Japan’s Ashio copper mine

Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development

John Muir Trail

Kaibab Plateau deer disaster

Kalahari Desert

Kesterson Reservoir

Khian Sea incident

Kings Canyon and Sequoia national parks

Kleppe v. New Mexico

Krakatoa eruption environmental impact


Kyoto Protocol

Land clearance

Land pollution


Landscape architecture

Land-use planning

Land-use policy

Leachates in landfills

League of Conservation Voters (LCV)

Leopold, Aldo

Life-cycle assessment

Light pollution

Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT)

Limits to Growth, The

Logging and clear-cutting

London Convention of 1933

London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution

London smog disaster

Los Angeles Aqueduct

Love Canal disaster

Lovejoy, Thomas E.

Lovelock, James

Lovins, Amory

Maathai, Wangari

Mad cow disease

Malathion in aerial spraying programs

Malthus, Thomas Robert

Manabe, Syukuro

Marine debris

Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA)

Marsh, George Perkins

Marshall, Robert

Mather, Stephen T

McToxics Campaign

Medfly spraying

Mediterranean Blue Plan

Mendes, Chico


Mercury releases in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Methane as a greenhouse gas

Methyl parathion (pesticide)

Migratory Bird Act

Mine reclamation

Mobro barge incident

Molina, Mario



Monoculture farming

Monongahela River tank collapse

Montreal Protocol

Mountain gorillas

Muir, John

Multiple-use management

Mumford, Lewis

Municipal mandates on open spaces

Nader, Ralph

Naess, Arne

Nanotechnology and the environment

Narmada Valley Development Project

National Audubon Society and wildlife preservation

National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE)

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

National Forest Management Act (NFMA)

National forests

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

National Parks and the environment

National Trails System Act

National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (NWRSAA)

Natural burial

Natural capital

Natural Resources Conservation Service

Natural Resources Defense Council

Nature Conservancy

Nature preservation policy

Neutron bomb (environmental impact)

New urbanism


Nitrogen oxides as pollutants

Noise pollution

Nonpolluting benefits of bicycles

North American Free Trade Agreement

North America’s environmental policies

North Sea radioactive cargo sinking

Nuclear accidents

Nuclear and radioactive waste

Nuclear fusion process (environmental impact)

Nuclear plant releases in Rocky Flats, Colorado

Nuclear power industry and the environment

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

Nuclear regulatory policy

Nuclear testing

Nuclear weapons production

Nuclear winter

Ocean dumping

Ocean life and rising water temperatures

Ocean pollution

Odor pollution

Oil crises and oil embargoes

Oil drilling

Oil shale and tar sands

Oil spills

Olmsted, Frederick Law

Open spaces

Operation Backfire

Organic gardening & farming

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, Jr.

Ostrom, Elinor

Our Common Future, The Brundtland Report


Overgrazing of livestock

Ozone depletion and ozone holes

Paclitaxel (drug)


Passenger pigeon extinction

PEMEX oil well leak

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)

Pesticides and herbicides (environmental impact)

Pets and the pet trade

Photovoltaic cells

Pinchot, Gifford

Planned communities

Planned obsolescence



Poaching of mountain gorillas

Polluter pays principle

Pollution of Lake Baikal

Pollution of Lake Erie

Pollution of the Danube River

Pollution of the Mississippi River

Pollution permit trading

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

Population Connection

Population growth and environmental impact

Population-control and one-child policies

Population-control movement

Positive feedback and tipping points

Powell, John Wesley

Power plants

Precautionary principle

Predator management


Preservation of old-growth forests

Preservation of the snail darter

Price-Anderson Act

Privatization movements (environmental)

Property rights movement

Public opinion and the environment

Public trust doctrine

Pulp and paper mills

Race-to-the-bottom hypothesis

Radiation from Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings

Radioactive pollution and fallout

Radon as a health hazard

Rainforest Action Network (RAN)

Rainwater harvesting

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance

Range management

Reclamation Act


Refuse-derived fuel

Renewable energy

Renewable resources

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Resource depletion

Resource management in Asia

Resource recovery

Restoration ecology

Revised Statute 2477

Rhine Action Programme

Rhine River

Right-to-know legislation

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

Riparian rights

Risk assessment and the environment

Roadless Area Conservation Rule

Rocky Mountain Arsenal

Rowell, Galen

Rowland, Frank Sherwood

Runoff, agricultural

Runoff, urban

Rural gentrification

Sacramento River pesticide spill

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

Sagebrush Rebellion

Sale, Kirkpatrick

Santa Barbara oil spill

Save the Whales Campaign

Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference v. Federal Power Commission

Schumacher, E. F.

Sea Empress oil spill

Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (SSCS)

Sea turtles

Seabed disposal

Seabed mining

Seal hunting

Sea-level changes

Secondhand smoke


Seed banks

Selective breeding

Septic systems

Severe and anomalous weather in recent decades

Severe storms

Sewage treatment and disposal

Shark finning

Sick building syndrome (SBS)

Sierra Club

Sierra Club v. Morton

Silent Spring Publication and Response


Silkwood, Karen

Singer, Peter

SL-1 reactor accident

Slash-and-burn agriculture

Sludge treatment and disposal

Smallpox eradication

Smart grids and renewable energy

Snyder, Gary

Social ecology

Soil conservation

Soil contamination

Soil salinization

Solar automobile racing

Solar energy

Solar One

Solar radiation management

Solar water heaters

Solid waste management policy

Soviet nuclear submarine sinking

Soviet Plan for the Transformation of Nature

Space debris

Spaceship Earth metaphor


St. Lawrence Seaway

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Stormwater management

Stringfellow Acid Pits

Strip and surface mining

Strip farming

Subsistence use

Sulfur oxides

Sun Day

Superfund legislation

Superphénix nuclear reactor

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA)

Sustainable agriculture

Sustainable development

Sustainable forestry

Sydney Tar Ponds

Synthetic fuels

Tansley, Arthur G.

Taylor Grazing Act

Tellico Dam

Temperature inversion in Donora, Pennsylvania

Tennessee Valley Authority

Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill

Teton Dam collapse

The Global 2000 Report

Thermal pollution

Thermohaline circulation

Thoreau, Henry David

Three Gorges Dam

Three Mile Island nuclear accident

Tidal energy

Tobago oil spill

Torrey Canyon oil spill

Tragedy of the commons

Trans-Alaska Pipeline

Trans-Siberian Pipeline

Turtle excluder devices

U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM)

U.S. Climate Action Partnership (USCAP)

U.S. Conference of Mayors Climate Protection Agreement

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

U.S. National Park Service (NPS)

Union of Concerned Scientists

United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)

United Nations Conference on the Human Environment

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

United Nations Environment Programme

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

United Nations population conferences

Urban ecology

Urban parks

Urban planning

Urban runoff

Urban sprawl


Vernadsky, Vladimir

Volatile organic compounds

Volcanoes and weather

Vulnerability of the Maldive Islands to rises in sea level

Waste management

Waste treatment

Wastewater management

Water conservation

Water loss in Mono Lake

Water management of the Klamath River

Water pollution

Water quality

Water rights

Water treatment

Water use

Water-pollution policy

Water-saving toilets

Watershed management

Watson, Paul

Watt, James

Weather modification


Welsh mining disaster


Wetlands and sea-level rise


White, Lynn Townsend, Jr.

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act

Wilderness Act

Wilderness areas

Wilderness Society


Wildlife management

Wildlife refuges

Wilmut, Ian

Wilson, Edward O

Wind energy

Windscale radiation release

Wise-use movement

Wolman, Abel

World Fertility Survey (WFS)

World Health Organization

World Heritage Convention

World Resources Institute

World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD)

World Trade Organization

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

World Wilderness Congresses (WWC)

Worldwatch Institute

Yellowstone National Park

Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository

Zahniser, Howard Clinton

Zapovednik system

Zoning laws

Zoos’ involvement in wildlife conservation

Timeline of American Environmentalism

Key figures in environmentalism

U.S. federal laws concerning the environment

Directory of U.S. National Parks

Major world national parks and protected areas

Environmental organizations