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Civil Rights Movement

Table of Contents

Publisher’s Note


Complete List of Contents

List of Contributors


Abortion Rights



Adarand Constructors v. Peña

Affirmative Action

African American-American Indian Relations

African American Baptist Church

African American Women


Aid to Families with Dependent Children

AIDS Conspiracy Theory

AIDS Crisis

Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education

All African People’s Revolutionary Party

AME Church

AME Zion Churches

American Anti-Slavery Society

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

American Council on Race Relations

Americans with Disabilities Act

American Indian Movement (AIM)

Amistad Slave Revolt

Anti-Semitism in America

Antislavery Laws of 1777 and 1807

Atlanta Compromise

Attica Prison Uprising

Bakke Case

Banking Practices


Batson v. Kentucky


Black Cabinet

Black Church

Black Codes

Black Colleges and Universities

Black Conservatism

Black Flight

Black Is Beautiful Movement

Black Lives Matter

Black Middle Class/Black Underclass Relations

Black Nationalism

Black-on-black Violence

Black Panther Party

Black Power Movement

Blackness and Whiteness: Legal Definitions

Bleeding Kansas

Body of Liberties

Bolling v. Sharpe

Bracero Program

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

Brown v. Board of Education

John Brown’s Raid

Buchanan v. Warley

Busing and Integration

Censuses, U.S.

Charleston Church Shooting

Charleston Race Riots

César Chávez

Chicano Movement

Church Burnings

Citizens’ Councils

Civil Disobedience

Civil Liberties

Civil Rights

Civil Rights Act of 1957

Civil Rights Act of 1960

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Civil Rights Act of 1968

Civil Rights Act of 1991

Civil Rights Acts of 1866-1875

Civil Rights Cases

Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Restoration Act

Civil War and African Americans

Class Theories of Racial/Ethnic Relations

Clinton Massacre

Clinton’s Initiative on Race

Colegrove v. Green

Coleman Report

Colfax Massacre

Colin Kaepernick Taking a Knee

College Admissions

College Entrance Examinations

Color of Law

Colored Women’s League

Commission on Civil Rights, U.S.

Compromise of 1850

Compromise of 1877

Confiscation Acts of 1861 and 1862

Congress of Racial Equality

Congressional Black Caucus

Conservative Theorists

Constitutional Racism

Cooper v. Aaron

Council of Federated Organizations

Crime and Race/Ethnicity

Criminal Justice Reform

Critical Race Theory

Culture of Poverty

Daughters of Bilitis

Desegregation of the Defense Industry

Desegregation of Public Schools

Detroit Riot

Disability Rights Movement


Discrimination: Behaviors

Discrimination: Racial and Ethnic

Disfranchisement Laws in Mississippi

Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell

Drugs and Racial/Ethnic Relations


Economics and Race

Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Company

Education and African Americans

Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975

Education and Racial/Ethnic Relations

Election of Barack Obama

Emancipation Proclamation

Employment among African Americans

Entitlement Programs

Environmental Racism

Equal Educational Opportunity

Equal Employment Opportunity Act

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)


Equality of Opportunity

Fair Employment Practices Committee

Fair Housing Act

Ferguson/Shooting of Michael Brown

Fifteenth Amendment

Flint Water Crisis

Fourteenth Amendment

Free African Society

Free Blacks

Free-Soil Party

Freedmen’s Bureau

Freedom Riders

Freedom Summer

Betty Friedan

Fugitive Slave Laws

Fullilove v. Klutznick

Gallaudet University Protests

Mohandas K. Gandhi


Gideon v. Wainwright

Grandfather Clauses

Great Migration

Green v. County School Board of New Kent County

Greensboro Sit-ins

Griffin v. Breckenridge

Griggs v. Duke Power Company

Grovey v. Townsend

Grutter v. Bollinger

Guinn v. United States

Haitians and Haitian Refugees

Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections

Head Start

Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States

Hernández v. Texas




“I Have a Dream” Speech

Ideological Racism

Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968

Individual Racism


Institutional Racism


Intelligence and Race

Internal Colonialism

Internalized Racism

Interracial and Interethnic Marriage

Japanese Internment Camps

Jewish-African American Relations

Jim Crow Laws

Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Company

Judicial Review

Jury Selection

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Kerner Report

Keyes v. Denver School District No. 1

King, Martin Luther, Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination

Rodney King Case

Know-Nothing Party

Ku Klux Klan

Ku Klux Klan Acts

Labor Movement

Lau v. Nichols

Lawrence v. Texas

LGBT Rights

Liberator, The

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Literacy Tests

Little Rock School Desegregation

Los Angeles Riots of 1992


Malcolm X Assassination

March on Washington

Marshall, Thurgood

Mattachine Society

McCleskey v. Kemp

Me Too Movement

Miami Riots of 1980

Military and Racial/Ethnic Relations

Military Desegregation

Milk, Harvey

Milliken v. Bradley

Million Man March

Million Woman March

Minority and Majority Groups

Miranda v. Arizona

Miscegenation Laws

Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

Missouri Compromise

Montgomery Bus Boycott

Moose Lodge No. v. Irvis

Morrill Land Grant Act of 1890

Moynihan Report

Multiracial Movement

Naïveté Explanation of Racism

Nation of Islam

National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Defense and Educational Fund

National Association of Colored Women

National Black Women’s Political Leadership Caucus

National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America

National Council of Colored People

National Council of Negro Women

National Organization for Women (NOW)

National Urban League

Negro Conventions

New York City Slave Revolt

New York Times Co. v. Sullivan

Newberry v. United States

Niagara Movement

Nineteenth Amendment

Nixon v. Herndon

Nonviolent Resistance

North Star, The

Obergefell v. Hodges

Occupation of Wounded Knee

Ole Miss Desegregation

One-drop Rule

Operation Wetback

Orangeburg Massacre


Pasadena City Board of Education v. Spangler


Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery

Plessy v. Ferguson

Police Brutality

Police Shootings of Black Citizens

Poll Tax

Poverty and Race

President’s Committee on Civil Rights

Proposition 209

Proslavery Argument

Psychology of Racism


Race as a Concept

Race Relations Cycle

Race Riots of 1866

Race Riots of 1943

Race Riots of the Twentieth Century

Racial and Ethnic Demographics: Trends

Racism as an Ideology

Racism: Changing Nature of

Racism: History of the Concept

Rainbow Coalition

R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul


Redemption Period



Reitman v. Mulkey

Removal of Confederate Statues and Monuments


Restrictive Covenants

Reverse Racism

Reynolds v. Sims

Richmond v. J. A. Croson Company

Roe v. Wade

Roosevelt Coalition

Rosie the Riveter

Runyon v. McCrary

Scott v. Sandford

Scottsboro Trials

The Second Sex


Segregation on the Frontier

Segregation vs. Integration


Selma-Montgomery March

Seneca Falls Convention



Sexual Fears and Racism


Shaw v. Reno

Shelby County v. Holder

Shelley v. Kraemer

Shooting of Trayvon Martin

O. J. Simpson Trial

Slave Codes

Slave Rebellions

Slavery and Race Relations

Slavery and the Justice System

Slavery: History

Slavery: North American beginnings

Smith v. Allwright

Social Identity Theory

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Southern Conference for Human Welfare


Steinem, Gloria


Stonewall Uprising

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

Summit Meeting of National Negro Leaders

Supreme Court and Ethnic Representation

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

Sweatt v. Painter

Symbolic Racism

Talented Tenth

Thirteenth Amendment

Thomas/Hill Hearings

Three-fifths Compromise

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972



Transgender Rights

Triple Oppression

Trump Administration Family Separation Policy

Turner’s Slave Insurrection

Tuskegee Airmen

Underclass Theories

Underground Railroad

“Unite the Right” Rally

United Mexican American Students (UMAS)

United States v. Cruikshank

United States v. Reese

United Steelworkers of America v. Weber

Universal Negro Improvement Association

Voting Rights

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Washington v. Davis

Watts Riot

Weber v. Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services

Welfare Reform: Impact on Racial/Ethnic Relations

White Privilege

White Supremacy

Wilson-Willie Debate

Wisconsin v. Mitchell

Women’s March

Women’s Rights



Notable Civil Rights Figures

Time Line