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Salem Health: Cancer, 2nd Edition

Table of Contents

Publisher’s Note



About the Editors



Contributors



Complete List of Contents



Achlorhydria



Acoustic neuromas



Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)



Acute Myelocytic Leukemia (AML)



Adenocarcinomas



Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC)



Adenomatoid tumors



Adenomatous polyps



Adrenal gland cancers



Adrenocortical cancer



Aleukemia



Alopecia



Alveolar soft-part sarcomas



Amenorrhea



Anal cancer



Anemia



Angiosarcomas



Aplastic anemia



Appendix cancer



Appetite loss



Ascites



Astrocytomas



Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT)



Barrett esophagus



Basal cell carcinomas



Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS)



Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)



Benign tumors



Bile duct cancer



Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHDS)



Bladder cancer



Blood cancers



Bone cancers



Bone pain



Bowen disease



Brain and central nervous system cancers



Breakthrough pain



Breast cancers



Breast cancer in children and adolescents



Breast cancer in men



Breast cancer in pregnant women



Bronchial adenomas



Bronchoalveolar lung cancer



Burkitt lymphoma



Cachexia



Calcifications of the breast



Cancer syndromes resulting from DNA repair defects



Candidiasis



Carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome



Carcinoma of Unknown Primary origin (CUP)



Carcinomas



Carcinomatosis



Carcinomatous meningitis



Carcinosarcomas



Cardiomyopathy in cancer patients



Carney complex



Castleman disease



Cervical cancer



Childhood cancers



Chordomas



Choriocarcinomas



Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)



Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)



Cold nodule



Colon polyps



Colorectal cancer



Comedo carcinomas



Cowden syndrome



Craniopharyngiomas



Craniosynostosis



Crohn’s disease



Cushing syndrome and cancer



Cutaneous breast cancer



Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL)



Denys-Drash syndrome and cancer



Depression



Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans (DFSP)



Desmoid tumors



Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT)



Diarrhea



Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)



Diverticulosis and diverticulitis



Down syndrome and leukemia



Dry mouth



Duct ectasia



Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)



Duodenal carcinomas



Dysplastic nevus syndrome



Edema



Embryonal cell cancer



Endocrine cancers



Endometrial cancer



Endometrial hyperplasia



Endotheliomas



Enteritis



Eosinophilic leukemia



Ependymomas



Epidermoid cancers of mucous membranes



Erythroplakia



Esophageal cancer



Esophagitis



Estrogen-receptor-sensitive breast cancer



Ewing sarcoma



Eye cancers



Eyelid cancer



Fallopian tube cancer



Fanconi anemia



Fatigue



Fever



Fibroadenomas



Fibrocystic breast changes



Fibrosarcomas, soft-tissue



5Q minus syndrome



Gallbladder cancer



Gardner syndrome



Gastric polyps



Gastrinomas



Gastrointestinal cancers



Gastrointestinal complications of cancer treatment



Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs)



Germ-cell tumors



Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors (GTTs)



Giant Cell Tumors (GCTs)



Glioblastomas



Gliomas



Glomus tumors



Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD)



Granulosa cell tumors



Gynecologic cancers



Hairy cell leukemia



Hand-Foot Syndrome (HFS)



Head and neck cancers



Hemangioblastomas



Hemangiopericytomas



Hemangiosarcomas



Hematemesis



Hematuria



Hemochromatosis



Hemolytic anemia



Hemoptysis



Hepatomegaly



Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer



Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC)



Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome



Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)



Hereditary non-VHL clear cell renal cell carcinomas



Hereditary pancreatitis



Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinomas



Hereditary polyposis syndromes



Histiocytosis X



Hodgkin disease



Horner syndrome



Hydatidiform mole



Hypercalcemia



Hypercoagulation disorders



Hypopharyngeal cancer



Infection and sepsis



Infectious cancers



Infertility and cancer



Inflammatory bowel disease



Invasive cancer



Invasive ductal carcinomas



Invasive lobular carcinomas



Islet cell tumors



Juvenile polyposis syndrome



Kaposi sarcoma



Keratosis



Kidney cancer



Klinefelter syndrome and cancer



Krukenberg tumors



Lacrimal gland tumors



Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS)



Laryngeal cancer



Laryngeal nerve palsy



Leiomyomas



Leiomyosarcomas



Leptomeningeal carcinomas



Leukemias



Leukoencephalopathy



Leukopenia



Leukoplakia



Leydig cell tumors



Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS)



Lip cancers



Liposarcomas



Liver cancers



Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS)



Lumps



Lung cancers



Lymphangiosarcomas



Lymphedema



Lymphocytosis



Lymphomas



Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma (MFH)



Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney



Malignant tumors



Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)



Mastocytomas



Mediastinal tumors



Medullary carcinoma of the breast



Medulloblastomas



Melanomas



Meningeal carcinomatosis



Meningiomas



Merkel Cell Carcinomas (MCC)



Mesenchymomas, malignant



Mesothelioma



Metastasis



Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary



Microcalcifications



Moles



Mucinous carcinomas



Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) lymphomas



Mucositis



Multiple endocrine neoplasia



Multiple myeloma



Myasthenia gravis



Mycosis fungoides



Myelodysplastic syndromes



Myelofibrosis



Myeloma



Myeloproliferative disorders



Myelosuppression



Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers



Nausea and vomiting



Nephroblastomas



Neuroblastomas



Neuroectodermal tumors



Neuroendocrine tumors



Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)



Neutropenia



Night sweats



Nijmegen breakage syndrome



Nipple discharge



Non-Hodgkin lymphoma



Obesity-associated cancers



Oligodendrogliomas



Oral and oropharyngeal cancers



Orbit tumors



Organ transplantation and cancer



Ovarian cancers



Ovarian cysts



Ovarian epithelial cancer



Paget disease of bone



Pancolitis



Pancreatic cancers



Pancreatitis



Paraneoplastic syndromes



Parathyroid cancer



Penile cancer



Pericardial effusion



Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS)



Pheochromocytomas



Phyllodes tumors



Pineoblastomas



Pituitary tumors



Pleural effusion



Pleuropulmonary blastomas



Pneumonia



Polycythemia vera



Polyps



Premalignancies



Primary central nervous system lymphomas



Prostate cancer



Prostatitis



Rectal cancer



Recurrence



Renal pelvis tumors



Retinoblastomas



Rhabdomyosarcomas



Richter syndrome



Rothmund-Thomson syndrome



Salivary gland cancer



Sarcomas, soft-tissue



Schwannoma tumors



Sertoli cell tumors



Sézary syndrome



Side effects



Sjögren syndrome



Skin cancers



Small intestine cancer



Spermatocytomas



Spinal axis tumors



Spinal cord compression



Squamous cell carcinomas



Sterility



Stomach cancers



Stomatitis



Superior vena cava syndrome



Symptoms and cancer



Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone production (SIADH)



Synovial sarcomas



Taste alteration



Teratocarcinomas



Teratomas



Testicular cancer



Throat cancer



Thrombocytopenia



Thymomas



Thymus cancer



Thyroid cancer



Tobacco-related cancers



Transitional cell carcinomas



Trichilemmal carcinomas



Tuberous sclerosis



Tubular carcinomas



Tumor flare



Tumor lysis syndrome



Turcot syndrome



Urethral cancer



Urinary system cancers



Uterine cancer



Vaginal cancer



Virus-related cancers



Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease



Vulvar cancer



Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (WM)



Weight loss



Wilms’ tumor



Wilms’ tumor Aniridia-Genitourinary anomalies-mental Retardation (WAGR) syndrome and cancer



Xeroderma pigmentosa



Yolk sac carcinomas



Young adult cancers



Zollinger-Ellison syndrome



Cancer care team



Cancer education



Clinical trials



Cytogenetics



Cytology



Dermatology oncology



Endocrinology oncology



Family history and risk assessment



Gastrointestinal oncology



Genetic counseling



Gynecologic oncology



Hematologic oncology



Immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry



Medical oncology



Molecular oncology



Neurologic oncology



Occupational therapy



Oncology



Oncology clinical nurse specialist



Oncology social worker



Ophthalmic oncology



Orthopedic surgery



Otolaryngology



Pathology



Pediatric oncology and hematology



Pharmacy oncology



Primary care physician



Psycho-oncology



Radiation oncology



Surgical oncology



Urologic oncology



Veterinary oncology



Viral oncology



American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)



American Cancer Society (ACS)



American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR)



Bristol-Myers Squibb



Dana-Farber Cancer Institute



Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center



Eli Lilly



Fox Chase Cancer Center



Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center



Genentech, Inc.



Geron Corporation



Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC)



M. D. Anderson Cancer Center



Mayo Clinic Cancer Center



Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center



Merck & Co.



National Cancer Institute (NCI)



National Science Foundation (NSF)



Prevent Cancer Foundation



Roche



Sanofi-Aventis



Stand Up To Cancer



Takeda Pharmaceutical Co.



Advance directives



African Americans and cancer



Africans and cancer



Aging and cancer



Aids and devices for cancer patients



Antiperspirants and breast cancer



Anxiety



Asian Americans and cancer



Ashkenazi Jews and cancer



Cancer clusters



Cancer survival support groups



Caregivers and caregiving



Case management



Childbirth and cancer



Cognitive effects of cancer and chemotherapy



Cost of cancer drugs



Counseling for cancer patients and survivors



Developing nations and cancer



Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) order



Elderly and cancer



Electrolarynx



End-of-life care



Ethnicity and cancer



Fertility issues



Financial issues



Geography and cancer



Grief and bereavement



Hereditary cancer syndromes



Home health services



Hospice care



Informed consent



Insurance



Journaling



Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS)



Latinos/Hispanics and cancer



Living will



Living with cancer



Long-distance caregiving



Managed care



Medical marijuana



Medicare and cancer



Native North Americans and cancer



Occupational exposures and cancer



Overtreatment



Physical therapy and cancer



Poverty and cancer



Prayer and cancer support



Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs)



Pregnancy and cancer



Psychosocial aspects of cancer



Relationships



Second opinions



Self-image and body image



Sephardic Jews and cancer risk



Sexuality and cancer



Singlehood and cancer



Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)



Statistics of cancer



Stress management



Support groups



Survival rates



Survivorship issues



Transitional care



Watchful waiting



Yoga and Cancer



Angiogenesis



B-lymphocytes



BRAF gene



BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes



Cancer biology



Cancer epigenetics



Cell cycle control



Cell death



Chromatin



Chromosomes and cancer



Circulating tumor cells



Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-2A (CDKN2A)



Cytokines



DNA methylation



DNA repair



DNMT3A



Epidemiology of cancer



Estrogen Receptor Downregulator (ERD)



Exosomes



Genetics of cancer



Genomics of cancer



Histone acetylation/deacetylation



Histone methylation/demethylation



Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)



IDH1



Immune response to cancer



Lysine Histone Demethylases (KDMs)



Menopause and cancer



Mesenchymal stem cells and cancer



Mitochondrial DNA mutations



MLH1 gene



MSH genes



Mutagenesis and cancer



MYC oncogene



Myeloid-derived suppressor cells



NK cells



Oncogenes



Personalized medicine/whole genome sequencing



Placental Alkaline Phosphatase (PALP)



PMS genes



Proteasome



Proteomics and cancer research



Proto-oncogenes and carcinogenesis



RB1 gene



Regulatory T-cells



RhoGDI2 gene



SCLC1 gene



Telomerase



T-lymphocytes



TP53 protein



Tumor biomarkers



Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)



Tumor-suppressor genes



Acrylamides



Aflatoxins



Agent Orange



Air pollution



Alcohol, alcoholism, and cancer



4-Aminobiphenyl



Arsenic compounds



Asbestos



Azathioprine



Bacteria as causes of cancer



Benzene



Benzidine and dyes metabolized to benzidine



Beryllium and beryllium compounds



Birth control pills and cancer



Bis(chloromethyl) ether and technical-grade chloromethyl methyl ether



Bisphenol A (BPA)



1,3-Butadiene



1,4-Butanediol dimethanesulfonate



Cadmium and cadmium compounds



Caffeine



Carcinogens, known



Carcinogens, reasonably anticipated



Cell phones



Chewing tobacco



Chlorambucil



1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (MeCCNU)



Chromium hexavalent compounds



Cigarettes and cigars



Coal tars and coal tar pitches



Coke oven emissions



Cyclophosphamide



Cyclosporin A



Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)



Diethanolamine (DEA)



Diethylstilbestrol (DES)



Dioxins



Electromagnetic radiation



Epstein-Barr Virus



Erionite



Ethylene oxide



Fertility drugs and cancer



Formaldehyde



Free radicals



Hair dye



Helicobacter pylori infection



Hepatitis B virus (HBV)



Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)



Herpes simplex virus



Herpes zoster virus



HER2/neu protein



HIV/AIDS-related cancers



Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)



Human growth factors and tumor growth



Human Papillomavirus (HPV)



Human T-cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV)



Ionizing radiation



Melphalan



Mineral oils



Mustard gas



2-Naphthylamine



Nickel compounds and metallic nickel



Oncogenic viruses



Organochlorines (OCs)



Pesticides and the food chain



Phenacetin



Plasticizers



Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons



Radon



Report on Carcinogens (RoC)



Silica, crystalline



Simian virus 40



Sunlamps



Thiotepa



Ultraviolet radiation and related exposures



Vinyl chloride



Wood dust



Abiraterone acetate (Zytiga)



Adenoviruses



Alkylating agents in chemotherapy



Androgen drugs



Angiogenesis inhibitors



Anthraquinones



Antiandrogens



Antidiarrheal agents



Antifungal therapies



Antimetabolites in chemotherapy



Antinausea medications



Antineoplastics in chemotherapy



Antiviral therapies



Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG)



BCR-ABL kinase and inhibitors



Benzodiazepines



BET inhibitors



Biological therapy



Bisphosphonates



Bortezomib (Velcade)



Brompton cocktail



Capecitabine



Cetuximab



Chemotherapy



Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell treatment



Colony-Stimulating Factors (CSFs)



Corticosteroids



Cycloastragenol



Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors



Chemoprevention



Decitabine/5-Azacytidine



Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol



Doxorubicin



Drug Resistance and Multidrug Resistance (MDR)



Erlotinib (Tarceva)



Glutamine



Hepatitis C drug treatments



Histamine 2 receptor antagonists



Histone deacetylase inhibitors



Hormonal therapies



IDH1 inhibitor AG-120



Imetelstat



Immunotherapy



Interferon



Interleukins



Laxatives



Lenalidomide (Revlimid)



Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors



Monoclonal antibodies



Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)



Opioids



Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin)



Pain Management



Palliative treatment



Pegfilgrastim (Neulasta)



Pemetrexed (Alimta)



Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)



Plant alkaloids and cancer



Plant alkaloids and terpenoids in chemotherapy



Platinum-based anticancer drugs



Proteasome inhibitors



Radiopharmaceuticals



Ranibizumab (Lucentis)



Rituximab



Romidepsin



Ruthenium based anticancer drug



Stem cell cancer treatments



Texaphyrins



Topoisomerase inhibitors



Trastuzumab (Herceptin)



Tyrosine kinase inhibitors



Vaccines, preventive



Vaccines, therapeutic



Vorinostat



Antioxidants



Chinese medicine and cancer



Coenzyme Q10



Complementary and Alternative Therapies



Curcumin



Dietary supplements



Electroporation therapy



Gerson therapy



Ginseng



Green tea



Herbs as antioxidants



Integrative oncology



Mistletoe



Motion sickness devices



PC-SPES



Phenolics



Saw palmetto



Sun’s soup



Artificial sweeteners



Beta-carotene



Bioflavonoids



Calcium



Cancer vaccines



Carotenoids



Coffee and cancer



Cruciferous vegetables



Esophageal speech



Exercise and cancer



Fiber



Folic acid



Fruits



Garlic and allicin



Indoles



Isoflavones



Lutein



Lycopene



Nutrition and cancer prevention



Nutrition and cancer treatment



Omega-3 fatty acids



Phytoestrogens



Prevention



Resveratrol



Risks for cancer



Screening for cancer



Smoking cessation



Soy foods



Sunscreens



Wine and cancer



ABCD



Abdominoperineal Resection (APR)



Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI)



Acupuncture and acupressure for cancer patients



Adjuvant therapy



Afterloading radiation therapy



Alkaline Phosphatase Test (ALP)



Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) levels



Amputation



Angiography



Anoscopy



APC gene testing



Arterial embolization



Autologous blood transfusion



Axillary dissection



Barium enema



Barium swallow



Bethesda criteria



Bilobectomy



Biopsy



Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy



Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT)



Bone scan



Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)



Brachytherapy



Brain scan



Breast implants



Breast reconstruction



Breast Self-Examination (BSE)



Breast ultrasound



Breslow’s staging



Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)



Bronchography



Bronchoscopy



CA 15-3 test



CA 19-9 test



CA 27-29 test



CA 125 test



Carcinoembryonic Antigen Antibody (CEA) test



Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)



Chemoembolization



Clinical Breast Exam (CBE)



Cobalt 60 radiation



Colectomy



Coloanal anastomosis



Colonoscopy and virtual colonoscopy



Colorectal cancer screening



Colostomy



Colposcopy



Complete Blood Count (CBC)



Computed Tomography (CT)-guided biopsy



Computed Tomography (CT) scan



Conization



Continuous Hyperthermic Peritoneal Perfusion (CHPP)



Cordectomy



Cordotomy



Core needle biopsy



Craniotomy



Cryoablation



Culdoscopy



Cystography



Cystoscopy



Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)



Dilation and Curettage (D&C)



DPC4 gene testing



Ductal lavage



Ductogram



Dukes’ classification



Electrosurgery



Embolization



Endorectal ultrasound



Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)



Endoscopy



Enterostomal therapy



Esophagectomy



Exenteration



External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT)



Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)



Flow cytometry



Gallium scan



Gamma Knife



Gene therapy



Genetic testing



Gleason grading system



Glossectomy



Gonioscopy



Grading of tumors



Hepatic Arterial Infusion (HAI)



Hormone receptor tests



HRAS gene testing



5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid (5HIAA) test



Hyperthermia therapy



Hyperthermic perfusion



Hysterectomy



Hysterography



Hystero-oophorectomy



Hysteroscopy



Ileostomy



Imaging contrast dyes



Imaging tests



Immunochemical Fecal Occult Blood Test (iFOBT)



Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP)



Infusion therapies



Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)



Iridium seeds



Ki67 test



Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) test



Laparoscopy and laparoscopic surgery



Laryngectomy



Laryngoscopy



Laser therapies



Leukapharesis



Limb salvage



Linear accelerator



Liver biopsy



Lobectomy



Loop Electrosurgical Excisional Procedure (LEEP)



Lumbar puncture



Lumpectomy



Lymphadenectomy



Lymphangiography



Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)



Mammography



Mastectomy



Mediastinoscopy



Microwave hyperthermia therapy



Mohs surgery



Needle localization



Nephrostomy



Nuclear medicine scan



Ommaya reservoir



Oophorectomy



Oral and maxillofacial surgery



Orchiectomy



Palpation



Pancreatectomy



Pap test



Paracentesis



Pelvic examination



Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography (PTHC)



Pericardiocentesis



Peritoneovenous shunts



Pheresis



Pleural biopsy



Pleurodesis



Pneumonectomy



Polypectomy



Positron Emission Tomography (PET)



Progesterone receptor assay



Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) test



Prostatectomy



Protein electrophoresis



Proton beam therapy



Radiation therapies



Radical neck dissection



Radiofrequency ablation



Radionuclide scan



Receptor analysis



Reconstructive surgery



Rehabilitation



Salpingectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy



Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) biopsy and mapping



Sigmoidoscopy



Splenectomy



Sputum cytology



Staging of cancer



Stent therapy



Stereotactic needle biopsy



Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS)



Surgical biopsies



Technetium isotopes



Testicular Self-Examination (TSE)



Thermal imaging



Thoracentesis



Thoracoscopy



Thoracotomy



Thyroid nuclear medicine scan



TNM staging



Tracheostomy



Transfusion therapy



Transrectal ultrasound



Transvaginal ultrasound



Tumor markers



Ultrasound tests



Umbilical cord blood transplantation



Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy



Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) series



Urinalysis



Urography



Urostomy



Vascular access tubes



Vasectomy and cancer



Wire localization



X-ray tests



Appendixes



Drugs Classified by Drug Classes/Trade Names



Associations and Agencies



Cancer Centers and Hospitals



Cancer Support Groups



Carcinogens



Glossary



Bibliography