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Great Lives from History: The Nineteenth Century

Table of Contents

Abdelkader



Muḥammad ՙAbduh



Abdülhamid II



Niels Henrik Abel



Lord Acton



Henry Adams



John Quincy Adams



Felix Adler



Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz



Louis Agassiz



Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan



Bronson Alcott



Louisa May Alcott



Alexander I



Alexander II



Horatio Alger



Ali Paşa Tepelenë



John Peter Altgeld



Hans Christian Andersen



Susan B. Anthony



Johnny Appleseed



Matthew Arnold



Thomas Arnold



Chester A. Arthur



Luise Aston



John Jacob Astor



Hubertine Auclert



John James Audubon



Jane Austen



Stephen Fuller Austin



Amedeo Avogadro



The Bāb



Charles Babbage



Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell



Karl Ernst von Baer



Bahā՚ullāh



Mikhail Bakunin



Robert Baldwin



Honoré de Balzac



George Bancroft



Henry Barnard



P. T. Barnum



Sir Charles Barry



Clara Barton



Sir Edmund Barton



Charles Baudelaire



L. Frank Baum



Dorothea Beale



Aubrey Beardsley



The Becquerel Family



Catharine Beecher



Henry Ward Beecher



Ludwig van Beethoven



Emil von Behring



Alexander Graham Bell



Muḥammad Bello



James Gordon Bennett



Thomas Hart Benton



Carl Benz



Hector Berlioz



Claude Bernard



Sarah Bernhardt



Annie Besant



Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel



Sir Henry Bessemer



Friedrich von Beust



Nicholas Biddle



Ambrose Bierce



Albert Bierstadt



George Caleb Bingham



Otto von Bismarck



Georges Bizet



Black Hawk



Elizabeth Blackwell



James G. Blaine



Louis Blanc



Amelia Bloomer



Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher



Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon



Marie Anne Victorine Boivin



Simón Bolívar



Edwin Booth



William Booth



Lizzie Borden



Aleksandr Borodin



Mary Elizabeth Braddon



F. H. Bradley



Mathew B. Brady



Johannes Brahms



Louis Braille



John Bright



Sir Isaac Brock



The Brontë Sisters



Henry Brougham



George Brown



John Brown



Olympia Brown



Elizabeth Barrett Browning



Anton Bruckner



Isambard Kingdom Brunel



Marc Isambard Brunel



William Cullen Bryant



James Buchanan



Charles Bulfinch



Luther Burbank



Jacob Burckhardt



Frances Hodgson Burnett



Daniel Hudson Burnham



Aaron Burr



Sir Richard Francis Burton



Josephine Butler



Samuel Butler



Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton



Lord Byron



Frances Xavier Cabrini



Calamity Jane



Fanny Calderón de la Barca



John C. Calhoun



Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès



Alexander Campbell



George Canning



Antonio Canova



William Carey



Don Carlos



Thomas Carlyle



Andrew Carnegie



Lewis Carroll



Kit Carson



Mary Ann Shadd Cary



Mary Cassatt



Viscount Castlereagh



George Catlin



Count Cavour



George Cayley



Cetshwayo



Paul Cézanne



Edwin Chadwick



Joseph Chamberlain



William Ellery Channing



Charles XIV John



Salmon P. Chase



François-René de Chateaubriand



Anton Chekhov



Lydia Maria Child



Frédéric Chopin



Kate Chopin



Henri Christophe



Cixi



Carl von Clausewitz



Henry Clay



Grover Cleveland



DeWitt Clinton



William Cobbett



Richard Cobden



William Cody



Ferdinand Julius Cohn



Samuel Taylor Coleridge



Samuel Colt



Auguste Comte



John Constable



Jay Cooke



William Fothergill Cooke and Charles Wheatstone



James Fenimore Cooper



Carolina Coronado



Gustave Courbet



Stephen Crane



Crazy Horse



David Crockett



Samuel Ajayi Crowther



Paul Cuffe



Caleb Cushing



George A. Custer



Georges Cuvier



Jacques Daguerre



Gottlieb Daimler



First Marquis of Dalhousie



John Dalton



Rubén Darío



Charles Darwin



Jacques-Louis David



Jefferson Davis



Sir Humphry Davy



Ferenc Deák



Alfred Deakin



Stephen Decatur



Richard Dedekind



Edgar Degas



Eugène Delacroix



Léo Delibes



Fourteenth Earl of Derby



George Dewey



Melvil Dewey



Porfirio Díaz



Charles Dickens



Emily Dickinson



Rudolf Diesel



Benjamin Disraeli



Dorothea Dix



Gaetano Donizetti



Fyodor Dostoevski



Stephen A. Douglas



Frederick Douglass



Sir Arthur Conan Doyle



James Buchanan Duke



Alexandre Dumas, père



Jean-Henri Dunant



Paul Laurence Dunbar



Eleuthère Irénée du Pont



First Earl of Durham



Antonín Dvořák



James Buchanan Eads



Thomas Eakins



Wyatt Earp



Mary Baker Eddy



Maria Edgeworth



Thomas Alva Edison



Gustave Eiffel



Charles William Eliot



George Eliot



Fanny Elssler



Ralph Waldo Emerson



Friedrich Engels



Sir Arthur Evans



Louis Faidherbe



Michael Faraday



David G. Farragut



Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett



Gustav Theodor Fechner



Marshall Field



Stephen J. Field



Millard Fillmore



Gustave Flaubert



Williamina Paton Stevens Fleming



Edwin Forrest



William Edward Forster



Charlotte Forten



Abby Kelley Foster



Stephen Collins Foster



Charles Fourier



Joseph Fourier



Lydia Folger Fowler



Anatole France



Francis Joseph I



César Franck



Sir John Franklin



Gottlob Frege



John C. Frémont



Friedrich Froebel



Elizabeth Fry



Margaret Fuller



Robert Fulton



James Gadsden



Matilda Joslyn Gage



Albert Gallatin



Évariste Galois



Francis Galton



Léon Gambetta



James A. Garfield



Giuseppe Garibaldi



William Lloyd Garrison



Paul Gauguin



Carl Friedrich Gauss



Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac



George IV



Henry George



Théodore Géricault



Sophie Germain



Geronimo



Gia Long



James Gibbons



Josiah Willard Gibbs



W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan



Vincenzo Gioberti



William Ewart Gladstone



August von Gneisenau



Vincent van Gogh



Nikolai Gogol



Sir George Goldie



Samuel Gompers



Charles Goodyear



Charles George Gordon



Charles Gounod



William Gilbert Grace



Ulysses S. Grant



Asa Gray



Horace Greeley



Thomas Hill Green



Francis Greenway



Charles Grey



Sir George Grey



Edvard Grieg



Sarah and Angelina Grimké



Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm



Sir William Robert Grove



Sir Robert Abbott Hadfield



Ernst Haeckel



H. Rider Haggard



Samuel Hahnemann



Sarah Josepha Hale



Sir William Rowan Hamilton



Marcus A. Hanna



Karl von Hardenberg



Keir Hardie



Thomas Hardy



William Rainey Harper



Joel Chandler Harris



Benjamin Harrison



Frederic Harrison



William Henry Harrison



Nathaniel Hawthorne



John Hay



Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden



Rutherford B. Hayes



Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel



Heinrich Heine



Hermann von Helmholtz



Felicia Dorothea Hemans



Joseph Henry



O. Henry



Aleksandr Herzen



Theodor Herzl



Wild Bill Hickok



Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla



Thomas Wentworth Higginson



James Jerome Hill



Octavia Hill



Hiroshige



Ho Xuan Huong



John Philip Holland



Oliver Wendell Holmes



Friedrich von Holstein



Winslow Homer



Hong Xiuquan



Sam Houston



Elias Howe



Julia Ward Howe



Samuel Gridley Howe



Margaret Lindsay Huggins



Victor Hugo



Alexander von Humboldt



Engelbert Humperdinck



William Holman Hunt



Thomas Henry Huxley



Henrik Ibsen



Ii Naosuke



Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres



Henry Irving



Washington Irving



Isabella II



Itō Hirobumi



Andrew Jackson



Helen Hunt Jackson



Stonewall Jackson



Mary Putnam Jacobi



Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī



Henry James



Jesse and Frank James



William James



Anna Jameson



Jean Jaurès



Lord Jeffrey



Sarah Orne Jewett



Andrew Johnson



Scott Joplin



Chief Joseph



Joséphine



Benito Juárez



Kamehameha I



Kang Youwei



Edmund Kean



John Keats



Baron Kelvin



Fanny Kemble



James Kent



Francis Scott Key



Søren Kierkegaard



Mary Kingsley



Rudyard Kipling



Heinrich von Kleist



Robert Koch



Sofya Kovalevskaya



Paul Kruger



Alfred Krupp



Joseph Lancaster



Helene Lange



Samuel Pierpont Langley



Lillie Langtry



Sir Edwin Ray Lankester



Pierre-Simon Laplace



Ferdinand Lassalle



Benjamin Henry Latrobe



John Laird Mair Lawrence



Emma Lazarus



Robert E. Lee



Étienne Lenoir



Leo XIII



Anna Leonowens



Leopold II



Mikhail Lermontov



Ferdinand de Lesseps



Meriwether Lewis and William Clark



Li Hongzhang



Justus von Liebig



Wilhelm Liebknecht



Liliuokalani



Lin Zexu



Abraham Lincoln



Mary Todd Lincoln



Jenny Lind



Joseph Lister



Franz Liszt



Second Earl of Liverpool



David Livingstone



Nikolay Ivanovich Lobachevsky



Lobengula



Belva A. Lockwood



Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer



Henry Wadsworth Longfellow



Countess of Lovelace



Sir Charles Lyell



Mary Lyon



John MacArthur



Thomas Babington Macaulay



Cyrus Hall McCormick



Sir John Alexander Macdonald



William Holmes McGuffey



Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis



Alexander Mackenzie



William Lyon Mackenzie



William McKinley



Daniel and Alexander Macmillan



William Charles Macready



Dolley Madison



The Mahdi



Thomas Robert Malthus



Édouard Manet



Meri Te Tai Mangakahia



Horace Mann



Henry Edward Manning



Daniel Mannix



Alessandro Manzoni



John Marshall



José Martí



Harriet Martineau



Karl Marx



Clorinda Matto de Turner



Guy de Maupassant



Frederick Denison Maurice



Matthew Fontaine Maury



Maximilian



James Clerk Maxwell



Giuseppe Mazzini



Second Viscount Melbourne



Herman Melville



Gregor Mendel



Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev



Felix Mendelssohn



Menelik II



Adah Isaacs Menken



Ottmar Mergenthaler



Metternich



Jules Michelet



Albert A. Michelson



James Mill



John Stuart Mill



Maria Mitchell



Theodor Mommsen



James Monroe



Lola Montez



Susanna Moodie



Dwight L. Moody



J. P. Morgan



Lewis Henry Morgan



William Morris



Samuel F. B. Morse



William Thomas Green Morton



Lucretia Mott



Muḥammad ՙAlī Pasha



John Muir



Modest Mussorgsky



Mutsuhito



Dadabhai Naoroji



Napoleon I



Napoleon III



John Nash



James Nasmyth



Thomas Nast



Carry Nation



Lord Nelson



Simon Newcomb



John Henry Newman



Michel Ney



Nicholas I



Barthold Georg Niebuhr



Nicéphore Niépce



Friedrich Nietzsche



Florence Nightingale



Alfred Nobel



Annie Oakley



Daniel O’Connell



Jacques Offenbach



Bernardo O’Higgins



Frederick Law Olmsted



Osceola



Sir William Osler



Nikolaus August Otto



Sir James Outram



Robert Owen



Niccolò Paganini



Alice Freeman Palmer



Lord Palmerston



Theodore Parker



Sir Henry Parkes



Francis Parkman



Charles Stewart Parnell



Louis Pasteur



Walter Pater



A. B. Paterson



Elizabeth Palmer Peabody



Pedro I



Pedro II



Sir Robert Peel



Charles Sanders Peirce



Matthew C. Perry



Oliver Hazard Perry



Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi



Wendell Phillips



Franklin Pierce



Zebulon Pike



Lydia E. Pinkham



Camille Pissarro



Pius IX



Francis Place



Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev



Edgar Allan Poe



Henri Poincaré



James K. Polk



Aleksandr Stepanovich Popov



John Wesley Powell



William Hickling Prescott



Pierre-Joseph Proudhon



Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin



Joseph Pulitzer



E. B. Pusey



Alexander Pushkin



Sir Henry Raeburn



Mahadev Govind Ranade



Ranjit Singh



Leopold von Ranke



Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin



Rammohan Ray



André Rebouças



Red Cloud



Odilon Redon



Walter Reed



Frederic Remington



Ernest Renan



Pierre-Auguste Renoir



Cecil Rhodes



David Ricardo



Ellen Swallow Richards



Abby Sage Richardson



Henry Hobson Richardson



Louis Riel



Arthur Rimbaud



Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov



Albrecht Ritschl



John D. Rockefeller



Auguste Rodin



John Augustus Roebling



Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen



Sir James Clark Ross



John Ross



Christina Rossetti



Gioacchino Rossini



The Rothschild Family



Henri Rousseau



John Ruskin



John Russell



Sacagawea



Saՙīd ibn Sulṭān



Saigō Takamori



Augustus Saint-Gaudens



Henri de Saint-Simon



Third Marquis of Salisbury



Samory Touré



José de San Martín



George Sand



Antonio López de Santa Anna



La Saragossa



John Singer Sargent



Domingo Faustino Sarmiento



Friedrich Karl von Savigny



Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst



Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling



Friedrich Schleiermacher



Heinrich Schliemann



Arthur Schopenhauer



Olive Schreiner



Franz Schubert



Clara Schumann



Robert Schumann



Carl Schurz



Charlotte Angas Scott



Dred Scott



Sir George Gilbert Scott



Sir Walter Scott



Winfield Scott



Edward Wyllis Scripps



Richard John Seddon



Anaïs Ségalas



Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis



Sequoyah



Saint Elizabeth Seton



Georges Seurat



William H. Seward



Shaka



Anna Howard Shaw



Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley



Percy Bysshe Shelley



William Tecumseh Sherman



Henry Sidgwick



The Siemens Family



Sitting Bull



Samuel Slater



Jedediah Smith



Joseph Smith



Mary Somerville



John Hanning Speke



Herbert Spencer



Mikhail Mikhaylovich Speransky



Leland Stanford



Henry Morton Stanley



Edwin M. Stanton



Elizabeth Cady Stanton



Freiherr vom Stein



Jakob Steiner



Charles Proteus Steinmetz



Stendhal



Alexander H. Stephens



George Stephenson



Thaddeus Stevens



Robert Louis Stevenson



Lucy Stone



Joseph Story



Harriet Beecher Stowe



Johann Strauss



George Edmund Street



Antonio José de Sucre



Louis Sullivan



Charles Sumner



Bertha von Suttner



Joseph Wilson Swan



Tadano Makuzu



Táhirih



Hippolyte Taine



Thomas Talbot



Talleyrand



Roger Brooke Taney



Zachary Taylor



Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky



Tecumseh



Thomas Telford



Alfred, Lord Tennyson



Ellen Terry



Nikola Tesla



Tewodros II



William Makepeace Thackeray



Sylvanus Thayer



Adolphe Thiers



Theodore Thomas



David Thompson



Henry David Thoreau



Tippu Tib



Alexis de Tocqueville



Leo Tolstoy



Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec



Catharine Parr Traill



Richard Trevithick



Flora Tristan



Anthony Trollope



Frances Trollope



Sojourner Truth



Tu Duc



Harriet Tubman



Sir Charles Tupper



Ivan Turgenev



J. M. W. Turner



Nat Turner



Mark Twain



William Marcy Tweed



John Tyler



ՙUthman dan Fodio



Martin Van Buren



Cornelius Vanderbilt



Giuseppe Verdi



Jules Verne



Queen Victoria



Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar



Rudolf Virchow



Vivekananda



Sir Julius Vogel



Richard Wagner



Edward Gibbon Wakefield



John Walter II



Lester Frank Ward



Montgomery Ward



Booker T. Washington



Carl Maria von Weber



Daniel Webster



Noah Webster



August Weismann



Duke of Wellington



W. C. Wentworth



George Westinghouse



James McNeill Whistler



Walt Whitman



John Greenleaf Whittier



Oscar Wilde



Charles Wilkes



Emma Willard



Frances Willard



William IV



George Washington Williams



Isaac Mayer Wise



Friedrich Wöhler



Victoria Woodhull



William Wordsworth



Fanny Bullock Workman



Frances Wright



Charlotte Mary Yonge



Brigham Young



Alexander and Demetrios Ypsilantis



Marie Elizabeth Zakrzewska



Zeng Guofan



Zhang Zhidong



Émile Zola