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Great Events from History: The Twentieth Century, 1901-1940

Table of Contents

Elster and Geitel Study Radioactivity

Mahler Directs the Vienna Court Opera

Creation of the First Synthetic Vat Dye

Discovery of Human Blood Groups

Grijns Suggests the Cause of Beriberi

Hewitt Invents the Mercury-Vapor Lamp

Hopkins Announces the Discovery of Tryptophan

Ivanov Develops Artificial Insemination

Kipping Discovers Silicones

China Allows Some Western Reforms

Teletype Is Developed

American Bowling Club Hosts Its First Tournament

Commonwealth of Australia Is Formed

Discovery of Oil at Spindletop

Reed Reports That Mosquitoes Transmit Yellow Fever

Morgan Assembles the World’s Largest Corporation

Insular Cases

Canada Claims the Arctic Islands

Booth Receives Patent for the Vacuum Cleaner

First Nobel Prizes Are Awarded

Röntgen Wins the Nobel Prize for the Discovery of X Rays

First Transatlantic Telegraphic Radio Transmission

Completion of the Mombasa-Lake Victoria Railway

Bateson Publishes Mendel’s Principles of Heredity

Carrel Rejoins Severed Blood Vessels

Cement Manufacturers Agree to Cooperate on Pricing

Heart of Darkness Critiques Imperialism

Hobson Critiques Imperialism

James Proposes a Rational Basis for Religious Experience

Johnson Duplicates Disc Recordings

Levi Recognizes the Axiom of Choice in Set Theory

McClung Contributes to the Discovery of the Sex Chromosome

Philippines Ends Its Uprising Against the United States

Zsigmondy Invents the Ultramicroscope

Pavlov Develops the Concept of Reinforcement

Tiffany Leads the Art Nouveau Movement in the United States

French Expedition at Susa Discovers Hammurabi’s Code

First Rose Bowl Game

Anglo-Japanese Treaty Brings Japan into World Markets

Stieglitz Organizes the Photo-Secession

Kennelly and Heaviside Theorize Existence of the Ionosphere

American Automobile Association Is Established

Rhodes Scholarships Are Instituted

Bayliss and Starling Establish the Role of Hormones

Caruso Records for the Gramophone and Typewriter Company

Mount Pelée Erupts

Anthracite Coal Strike

Treaty of Vereeniging Ends the Boer War

Expansion of Direct Democracy

Australia Extends Suffrage to Women

Russell Discovers the “Great Paradox”

Reclamation Act Promotes Western Agriculture

A Trip to the Moon Introduces Special Effects

Founding of International Harvester Company

Tobacco Companies Unite to Split World Markets

Sutton Proposes That Chromosomes Carry Hereditary Traits

Founding of the International Sanitary Bureau

Delaware Revises Corporation Laws

Hoffmann and Moser Found the Wiener Werkstätte

Scott Publishes The Theory of Advertising

Shaw Articulates His Philosophy in Man and Superman

Tsiolkovsky Proposes Using Liquid Oxygen for Space Travel

Hale Establishes Mount Wilson Observatory

Pogroms in Imperial Russia

Vaughan Williams Composes His Nine Symphonies

Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock

Creation of the U.S. Department of Commerce and Labor

U.S. Supreme Court Upholds Federal Powers to Regulate Commerce

First U.S. National Wildlife Refuge Is Established

Roosevelt and Muir Visit Yosemite

Platt Amendment

Wisconsin Adopts the First Primary Election Law

Founding of the Weekly Indian Opinion

First Tour de France

Ilinden Uprising in Macedonia

Pius X Becomes Pope

Gillette Markets the First Razor with a Disposable Blade

The Great Train Robbery Introduces New Editing Techniques

Baseball Holds Its First World Series

Pankhursts Found the Women’s Social and Political Union

Henry James’s The Ambassadors Is Published

Panama Declares Independence from Colombia

U.S. Acquisition of the Panama Canal Zone

Becquerel Wins the Nobel Prize for Discovering Natural Radioactivity

Wright Brothers’ First Flight

Canadian Cultivation of Marquis Wheat

First Practical Photoelectric Cell Is Developed

Freud Advances the Psychoanalytic Method

Hartmann Discovers the First Evidence of Interstellar Matter

Kapteyn Discovers Two Star Streams in the Galaxy

Bartók and Kodály Collect Hungarian Folk Songs

Gorgas Develops Effective Methods of Mosquito Control

Weber Posits the “Protestant Ethic”

Brouwer Develops Intuitionist Foundations of Mathematics

Haber Develops Process for Extracting Nitrogen from the Air

Zermelo Undertakes Comprehensive Axiomatization of Set Theory

Brandenberger Invents Cellophane

Herero and Nama Revolts

Russo-Japanese War

U.S. Supreme Court Rules Against Northern Securities

Sherrington Clarifies the Role of the Nervous System

Entente Cordiale

L’Humanité Gives Voice to French Socialist Politics

International Agreement Targets White Slave Trade

Construction Begins on the Panama Canal

Lhasa Convention Is Signed in Tibet

Welsh Revival Spreads Pentecostalism

Cohan’s Little Johnny Jones Premieres

Fleming Patents the First Vacuum Tube

Duncan Interprets Chopin in Her Russian Debut

Abbey Theatre Heralds the Celtic Revival

Baker Establishes the 47 Workshop at Harvard

Einthoven Begins Clinical Studies with Electrocardiography

Hertzsprung Notes Relationship Between Star Color and Luminosity

Hoffmann Designs the Palais Stoclet

Introduction of the First Injectable Anesthetic

Punnett’s Mendelism Includes Diagrams Showing Heredity

Singer Begins Manufacturing Sewing Machines in Russia

Baekeland Invents Bakelite

Boltwood Uses Radioactivity to Determine Ages of Rocks

Pinchot Becomes Head of the U.S. Forest Service

National Audubon Society Is Established

Bloody Sunday

U.S. Supreme Court Upholds Prosecution of the Beef Trust

First American Service Organization Is Founded

Einstein Describes the Photoelectric Effect

Tangier Crisis

U.S. Supreme Court Strikes Down Maximum Hours Law

First Nickelodeon Film Theater Opens

Avant-Garde Artists Form Die Brücke

Founding of Industrial Workers of the World

Founding of the Niagara Movement

Lowell Predicts the Existence of Pluto

Armstrong Committee Examines the Insurance Industry

Einstein States His Theory of Special Relativity

Stein Holds Her First Paris Salons

Fauves Exhibit at the Salon d’Automne

Norway Becomes Independent

October Manifesto

Reinhardt Becomes Director of the Deutsches Theater

Sinn Féin Is Founded

Crile Performs the First Direct Blood Transfusion

Strauss’s Salome Shocks Audiences

Anschütz-Kaempfe Invents the First Practical Gyrocompass

Barkla Discovers the Characteristic X Rays of the Elements

Bateson and Punnett Observe Gene Linkage

Cottrell Invents the Electrostatic Precipitation Process

Fréchet Introduces the Concept of Abstract Space

Hopkins Postulates the Presence of Vitamins

Markov Discovers the Theory of Linked Probabilities

Pareto Analyzes the Distribution of Wealth

Publication of The English Hymnal

Artists Find Inspiration in African Tribal Art

Oldham and Mohorovičić Determine the Earth’s Interior Structure

Willstätter Discovers the Composition of Chlorophyll

Founding of the Monist League Leads to the Eugenics Movement

American College Football Allows the Forward Pass

Sinclair Publishes The Jungle

Establishment of the British Labour Party

Lee Establishes the Field of Public Relations

Azusa Street Revival

San Francisco Earthquake

First Meeting of the Duma

First Grand Prix Auto Race

International Association for the Prevention of Smoke Is Founded

Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act

Finland Grants Women Suffrage

First German U-Boat Is Launched

Bern Convention Prohibits Night Work for Women

Persia Adopts a Constitution

Launching of the Dreadnought

Japan Protests Segregation of Japanese in California Schools

Thomson Wins the Nobel Prize for Discovering the Electron

Fessenden Pioneers Radio Broadcasting

Muslim League Protests Government Abuses of Minority Rights in India

Bergson’s Creative Evolution Inspires Artists and Thinkers

Famine Strikes Russia

Haldane Develops Stage Decompression for Deep-Sea Divers

Hertzsprung Describes Giant and Dwarf Stellar Divisions

Lumières Develop Color Photography

Meinecke Advances the Analytic Method in History

Plague Kills 1.2 Million in India

Publication of Busoni’s Sketch for a New Aesthetic of Music

Publication of James’s Pragmatism

Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona Become U.S. States

The Playboy of the Western World Offends Irish Audiences

Romanian Peasant Revolt

Gentlemen’s Agreement

Publication of The Catholic Encyclopedia

Development of Nerve Fibers Is Observed

Formation of the Plunket Society

Baden-Powell Establishes the Boy Scouts

Formation of the Triple Entente

Deutscher Werkbund Is Founded

Panic of 1907

Second Hague Peace Conference

Ringling Bros. Buys Barnum and Bailey Circus

Pavlova Performs The Dying Swan

Chlorination of the U.S. Water Supply Begins

Hardy and Weinberg Present a Model of Population Genetics

Hughes Revolutionizes Oil Well Drilling

Schoenberg Breaks with Tonality

Morgan Develops the Gene-Chromosome Theory

Roosevelt Withdraws the Grand Canyon from Mining Claims

The Ghost Sonata Influences Modern Theater and Drama

U.S. Supreme Court Ruling Allows Yellow-Dog Contracts

Danbury Hatters Decision Constrains Secondary Boycotts

Geiger and Rutherford Develop a Radiation Counter

Muller v. Oregon

Cadillac Demonstrates Interchangeable Parts

Harvard University Founds a Business School

Conference on the Conservation of Natural Resources

Oil Is Discovered in Persia

Salon d’Automne Rejects Braque’s Cubist Works

Hale Discovers Strong Magnetic Fields in Sunspots

Young Turks Stage a Coup in the Ottoman Empire

Bureau of Investigation Begins Operation

First Issue of Pravda Appears

Austria Annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina

Ehrlich and Metchnikoff Conduct Pioneering Immunity Research

Belgium Annexes the Congo

Christian Science Monitor Is Founded

Boule Reconstructs the First Neanderthal Skeleton

Elgar’s First Symphony Premieres to Acclaim

Cairo University Is Inaugurated

First Black Heavyweight Boxing Champion

Earthquake and Tsunami Devastate Sicily

First Kibbutz Is Established in Palestine

Johannsen Coins the Terms “Gene,” “Genotype,” and “Phenotype”

Mecklenburg-Schwerin Admits Women to University Education

Steinitz Inaugurates Modern Abstract Algebra

United States Begins “Dollar Diplomacy”

Pickford Reigns as “America’s Sweetheart”

Millikan Conducts His Oil-Drop Experiment

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Is Founded

Marinetti Issues the Futurist Manifesto

Republican Congressional Insurgency

U.S. Congress Updates Copyright Law

Parliament Act Redefines British Democracy

Peary and Henson Reach the North Pole

Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes Astounds Paris

Fokine’s Les Sylphides Introduces Abstract Ballet

First Airplane Flight Across the English Channel

Tariff Act of 1909 Limits Corporate Privacy

First Auto Race at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway

Canada Cement Affair Prompts Legislative Reform

Completion of the AEG Turbine Factory

Garbage Industry Introduces Reforms

Handy Ushers in the Commercial Blues Era

Angell Advances Pacifism

Electric Washing Machine Is Introduced

Euthenics Calls for Pollution Control

Gaudí Completes the Casa Milá Apartment House

Rous Discovers That Some Cancers Are Caused by Viruses

Steinmetz Warns of Pollution in “The Future of Electricity”

Thomson Confirms the Possibility of Isotopes

Principia Mathematica Defines the Logistic Movement

Great Northern Migration

Poiret’s Hobble Skirt Becomes the Rage

Ehrlich Introduces Salvarsan as a Cure for Syphilis

First Morris Plan Bank Opens

Formation of the Union of South Africa

The Firebird Premieres in Paris

U.S. Bureau of Mines Is Established

Japanese Annexation of Korea

Republic of Portugal Is Proclaimed

Mexican Revolution

Carnegie Establishes the Endowment for International Peace

Boas Publishes The Mind of Primitive Man

Hashimoto Founds the Nissan Motor Company

Italy Annexes Libya

Borden Leads Canada Through World War I

Rilke’s Duino Elegies Redefines Poetics

Scriabin’s Prometheus Premieres in Moscow

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

Baro-Kano Railroad Begins Operation in Nigeria

Sibelius Conducts the Premiere of His Fourth Symphony

Lever Acquires Land Concession in the Belgian Congo

U.S. Supreme Court Establishes the “Rule of Reason”

U.S. Supreme Court Breaks Up the American Tobacco Company

Agadir Crisis

Bingham Discovers Machu Picchu

Der Blaue Reiter Abandons Representation in Art

Students Challenge Corporal Punishment in British Schools

Assassination of Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin

Sturtevant Produces the First Chromosome Map

Sun Yixian Overthrows the Qing Dynasty

Mahler’s Masterpiece Das Lied von der Erde Premieres

Australasian Antarctic Expedition Commences

Amundsen Reaches the South Pole

Parliament Nationalizes the British Telephone System

Grey’s Riders of the Purple Sage Launches the Western Genre

Jung Publishes The Psychology of the Unconscious

Kandinsky Publishes His Theory of Abstract Art

Slipher Obtains the Spectrum of a Distant Galaxy

Bohr Uses Quantum Theory to Identify Atomic Structure

Abel Develops the First Artificial Kidney

X-Ray Crystallography Is Developed by the Braggs

Wahhābīism Strengthens in Saudi Arabia

Wegener Proposes the Theory of Continental Drift

South African Native National Congress Meets

International Opium Convention Is Signed

Leavitt Discovers How to Measure Galactic Distances

Rutherford Describes the Atomic Nucleus

Pound Announces the Birth of the Imagist Movement

Children’s Bureau Is Founded

Sinking of the Titanic

Stockholm Hosts the Summer Olympics

L’Après-midi d’un faune Scandalizes Parisian Audiences

Massachusetts Adopts the First Minimum Wage Law in the United States

Pope Pius X Condemns Slavery

Massey Is Elected Prime Minister of New Zealand

Sennett Defines Slapstick Comedy

U.S. Intervention in Nicaragua

Hess Discovers Cosmic Rays

U.S. Public Health Service Is Established

Harriet Monroe Founds Poetry Magazine

First Conference of the Society of American Indians

Balkan Wars

Wilson Is Elected U.S. President

Apollinaire Defines Cubism

Duchamp’s “Readymades” Redefine Art

Edison Shows the First Talking Pictures

First Geothermal Power Plant Begins Operation

Fuller Brush Company Is Incorporated

Gutenberg Discovers Earth’s Mantle-Outer Core Boundary

Hertzsprung Uses Cepheid Variables to Calculate Distances to the Stars

Husserl Advances Phenomenology

Salomon Develops Mammography

Schick Introduces a Test for Diphtheria

Proust Publishes Remembrance of Things Past

Burton Refines Petroleum with Thermal Cracking

Fabry Quantifies Ozone in the Upper Atmosphere

Armory Show

U.S. Federal Income Tax Is Authorized

Ford Assembly Line Begins Operation

Migratory Bird Act

Webern’s Six Pieces for Large Orchestra Premieres

Rockefeller Foundation Is Founded

Passage of the First Alien Land Law

The Rite of Spring Stuns Audiences

Advertisers Adopt a Truth-in-Advertising Code

Anti-Defamation League Is Founded

Completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct

Russell Announces His Theory of Stellar Evolution

U.S. Congress Approves a Dam in Hetch Hetchy Valley

Federal Reserve Act

Rutherford Discovers the Proton

U.S. Government Begins Using Cost-Plus Contracts

Ford Announces a Five-Dollar, Eight-Hour Workday

ASCAP Forms to Protect Writers and Publishers of Music

Gilbreth Publishes The Psychology of Management

Outbreak of World War I

World War I

Panama Canal Opens

Last Passenger Pigeon Dies

First Battle of the Marne

Irish Home Rule Bill

Germany Begins Extensive Submarine Warfare

Federal Trade Commission Is Organized

Clayton Antitrust Act

Labor Unions Win Exemption from Antitrust Laws

Spain Declares Neutrality in World War I

British Mount a Second Front Against the Ottomans

Lippmann Helps to Establish The New Republic

Merrill Lynch & Company Is Founded

The Metamorphosis Anticipates Modern Feelings of Alienation

National Birth Control League Forms

Germany Launches the First Zeppelin Bombing Raids

First Transcontinental Telephone Call Is Made

Gallipoli Campaign Falters

Defense of India Act Impedes the Freedom Struggle

Griffith Releases The Birth of a Nation

Germany Uses Poison Gas Against Allied Troops

Armenian Genocide Begins

International Congress of Women

Fokker Aircraft Are Equipped with Machine Guns

German Torpedoes Sink the Lusitania

Corning Glass Works Trademarks Pyrex

Denishawn School of Dance Opens

McLean Discovers the Natural Anticoagulant Heparin

Zimmerwald and Kienthal Conferences

Women’s Institutes Are Founded in Great Britain

Langevin Develops Active Sonar

First Demonstration of Transatlantic Radiotelephony

Einstein Completes His Theory of General Relativity

Poppies Become a Symbol for Fallen Soldiers

Malevich Introduces Suprematism

Completion of the Trans-Siberian Railroad

Dada Movement Emerges at the Cabaret Voltaire

Dewey Applies Pragmatism to Education

Ives Completes His Fourth Symphony

Schwarzschild Solves the Equations of General Relativity

Lenin Critiques Modern Capitalism

Battle of Verdun

Pershing Expedition

Easter Rebellion

Battle of Jutland

Brandeis Becomes the First Jewish Supreme Court Justice

Fayol Publishes General and Industrial Management

New York City Institutes a Comprehensive Zoning Law

Hindenburg Program Militarizes the German Economy

National Park Service Is Created

United States Establishes a Permanent Tariff Commission

First Self-Service Grocery Store Opens

American Institute of Accountants Is Founded

First American Birth Control Clinic Opens

First Woman Is Elected to the U.S. Congress

American Farmers Increase Insecticide Use

Birdseye Invents Quick-Frozen Foods

National Woman’s Party Is Founded

De Stijl Advocates Mondrian’s Neoplasticism

Yeats Publishes The Wild Swans at Coole

Bolsheviks Suppress the Russian Orthodox Church

Ukrainian Nationalists Struggle for Independence

Russian Communists Inaugurate the Red Terror

Pound’s Cantos Is Published

Mexican Constitution Establishes an Advanced Labor Code

Immigration Act of 1917

Mount McKinley National Park Is Created

Lenin Leads the Russian Revolution

Jones Act of 1917

United States Enters World War I

U.S. Curtails Civil Liberties During World War I

Formation of the American Friends Service Committee

Universal Negro Improvement Association Establishes a U.S. Chapter

Marian Apparitions in Fátima, Portugal

First Pulitzer Prizes Are Awarded

Espionage and Sedition Acts

United States Establishes the War Industries Board

Forbes Magazine Is Founded

Canadian Women Gain the Vote

U.S. Congress Imposes a Wartime Excess-Profits Tax

France Executes Mata Hari

Hooker Telescope Is Installed on Mount Wilson

Balfour Declaration Supports a Jewish Homeland in Palestine

Bolsheviks Mount the October Revolution

Halifax Explosion

Finland Gains Independence

Cather’s My Ántonia Promotes Regional Literature

Noether Shows the Equivalence of Symmetry and Conservation

Germans Revolt and Form a Socialist Government

Rietveld Designs the Red-Blue Chair

Russian Civil War

Shapley Proves the Sun Is Distant from the Center of Our Galaxy

British Women Gain the Vote

Baltic States Gain Independence

Influenza Epidemic Strikes

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Rise of Cultural Relativism Revises Historiography

Migratory Bird Treaty Act

Meuse-Argonne Offensive

Demobilization of U.S. Forces After World War I

Republican Resurgence Ends America’s Progressive Era

Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes Declares Independence

Birth of Czechoslovakia

Aston Builds the First Mass Spectrograph and Discovers Isotopes

Founding of the World Christian Fundamentals Association

German Artists Found the Bauhaus

Mises Develops the Frequency Theory of Probability

Principles of Shortwave Radio Communication Are Discovered

Ponzi Cheats Thousands in an Investment Scheme

Bjerknes Discovers Fronts in Atmospheric Circulation

Racist Theories Aid Nazi Rise to Political Power

Assassination of Rosa Luxemburg

Paris Peace Conference Addresses Protection for Minorities

Lenin Approves the First Soviet Nature Preserve

Lenin Establishes the Comintern

Formation of the American Legion

Frisch Discovers That Bees Communicate Through Body Movements

British Soldiers Massacre Indians at Amritsar

League of Nations Is Established

May Fourth Movement

Winnipeg General Strike

Greco-Turkish War

National Parks and Conservation Association Is Founded

International Labor Organization Is Established

Treaty of Versailles

Weimar Constitution

Red Scare

Saint-Germain-en-Laye Convention Attempts to Curtail Slavery

Steelworkers Strike for Improved Working Conditions

Black Sox Scandal

Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation Is Confirmed over Newton’s Theory

Horthy Consolidates Power in Hungary

Slipher Presents Evidence of Redshifts in Galactic Spectra

Chanel Defines Modern Women’s Fashion

Donham Promotes the Case Study Teaching Method at Harvard

Harlem Renaissance

Jantzen Popularizes the One-Piece Bathing Suit

Radio Develops as a Mass Broadcast Medium

Britain Represses Somali Rebellion

Advisory Councils Give Botswana Natives Limited Representation

The Mysterious Affair at Styles Introduces Hercule Poirot

Premiere of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari

Ireland Is Granted Home Rule and Northern Ireland Is Created

Gandhi Leads a Noncooperation Movement

Melville Is Rediscovered as a Major American Novelist

Great Britain Establishes Unemployment Benefits

Millikan Investigates Cosmic Rays

New York Yankees Acquire Babe Ruth

Formation of Les Six


American Civil Liberties Union Is Founded

League of Women Voters Is Founded

Mineral Act Regulates Public Lands

United States v. United States Steel Corporation

Great Britain and France Sign the San Remo Agreement

Great Iraqi Revolt

Group of Seven Exhibition

Canonization of Joan of Arc

Procter & Gamble Announces Plans to Sell Directly to Retailers

Meighen Era in Canada

Formation of the American Professional Football Association

Radio Broadcasting Begins

U.S. Women Gain the Right to Vote

U.S. Post Office Begins Transcontinental Airmail Delivery

Formation of Qantas Airlines

Michelson Measures the Diameter of a Star

Permanent Court of International Justice Is Established

General Motors Institutes a Multidivisional Structure

Rise of the French Communist Party

Boulanger Takes Copland as a Student

First Woman Elected to Australian Parliament

Larson Constructs the First Modern Polygraph

Man Ray Creates the Rayograph

Noether Publishes the Theory of Ideals in Rings

Sweden Abolishes Capital Punishment

Tuberculosis Vaccine BCG Is Developed

Wittgenstein Emerges as an Important Philosopher

Banting and Best Isolate the Hormone Insulin

Famine in Russia Claims Millions of Lives

Hašek’s The Good Soldier Švejk Reflects Postwar Disillusionment

Scandals of the Harding Administration

Schoenberg Develops His Twelve-Tone System

Ku Klux Klan Spreads Terror in the American South

King Era in Canada

Lenin Announces the New Economic Policy

Poland Secures Independence

Plebiscite Splits Upper Silesia Between Poland and Germany

Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of an Author Premieres

Emergency Quota Act

Moplah Rebellion

First Miss America Is Crowned

Harding Eulogizes the Unknown Soldier

Sanger Organizes Conferences on Birth Control

Washington Disarmament Conference

Sheppard-Towner Act

Eliot Publishes The Waste Land

First Major U.S. Shopping Center Opens

First Meeting of the Vienna Circle

McCollum Names Vitamin D and Pioneers Its Use Against Rickets

Izaak Walton League Is Formed

Reader’s Digest Is Founded

Joyce’s Ulysses Redefines Modern Fiction

Treaty of Rapallo April 16, 1922

New Wimbledon Tennis Stadium Is Dedicated

League of Nations Establishes Mandate for Palestine

Cable Act

Mussolini’s “March on Rome”

Carter Discovers the Tomb of Tutankhamen

Ozawa v. United States

Nansen Wins the Nobel Peace Prize

Oil Is Discovered in Venezuela

A. C. Nielsen Company Pioneers in Marketing and Media Research

Andrews Expedition Discovers the First Fossilized Dinosaur Eggs

Buber Breaks New Ground in Religious Philosophy

De Broglie Explains the Wave-Particle Duality of Light

Discovery of the Compton Effect

Federal Power Commission Disallows Kings River Dams

Germans Barter for Goods in Response to Hyperinflation

Kahn Develops a Modified Syphilis Test

The Ten Commandments Advances American Film Spectacle

Cambridge Ancient History Appears

France Occupies the Ruhr

Bessie Smith Records “Downhearted Blues”

Luce Founds Time Magazine

Nevada and Montana Introduce Old-Age Pensions

American Management Association Is Established

U.S. Supreme Court Rules Against Minimum Wage Laws

Zdansky Discovers Peking Man

Oklahoma Imposes Martial Law in Response to KKK Violence

Corfu Crisis

Earthquake Rocks Japan

Teapot Dome Scandal

Great Britain Grants Self-Government to Southern Rhodesia

Stravinsky Completes His Wind Octet

Beer Hall Putsch

Proposal of the Equal Rights Amendment

Zworykin Applies for Patent on an Early Type of Television

Hubble Determines the Distance to the Andromeda Nebula

Mann’s The Magic Mountain Reflects European Crisis

Soviets Establish a Society for the Protection of Nature

Steenbock Discovers Sunlight Increases Vitamin D in Food

Svedberg Develops the Ultracentrifuge

U.S. Government Loses Its Suit Against Alcoa

Hawthorne Studies Examine Human Productivity

Howard Hughes Builds a Business Empire

First Winter Olympic Games

IBM Changes Its Name and Product Line

Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue Premieres in New York

Eddington Formulates the Mass-Luminosity Law for Stars

Formation of the Blue Four Advances Abstract Painting

Farmers Dynamite the Los Angeles Aqueduct

Immigration Act of 1924

U.S. Congress Establishes the Border Patrol

Indian Citizenship Act

Gila Wilderness Area Is Designated

Oil Pollution Act Sets Penalties for Polluters

Dart Discovers the First Australopithecine Fossil

Dawes Plan

Surrealism Is Born

Halibut Treaty

Coolidge Is Elected U.S. President

Hubble Shows That Other Galaxies Are Independent Systems

Von Stroheim’s Silent Masterpiece Greed Premieres

Hoover Becomes the Director of the U.S. Bureau of Investigation

The City Initiates the Study of Urban Ecology

Cranbrook Academy Promotes the Arts and Crafts Movement

Eisenstein’s Potemkin Introduces New Film Editing Techniques

Gide’s The Counterfeiters Questions Moral Absolutes

Hamilton Publishes Industrial Poisons in the United States

McKinsey Founds a Management Consulting Firm

New Objectivity Movement Is Introduced

Sears, Roebuck Opens Its First Retail Outlet

Whipple Discovers Importance of Iron for Red Blood Cells

Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway Explores Women’s Consciousness

Mussolini Seizes Dictatorial Powers in Italy

Gance’s Napoléon Revolutionizes Filmmaking Techniques

Women’s Rights in India Undergo a Decade of Change

Pahlavi Shahs Attempt to Modernize Iran

Bell Labs Is Formed

First Female Governor in the United States

U.S. Congress Authorizes Private Carriers for Airmail

Ross Founds The New Yorker

Corrupt Practices Act Limits Political Contributions

Pauli Formulates the Exclusion Principle

German Expedition Discovers the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Fitzgerald Captures the Roaring Twenties in The Great Gatsby

Paris Exhibition Defines Art Deco

Cyprus Becomes a British Crown Colony

Japan Introduces Suffrage for Men

Thérèse of Lisieux Is Canonized

Geneva Protocol Is Signed

Chaplin Produces His Masterpiece The Gold Rush

Scopes Trial

Mein Kampf Outlines Nazi Thought

West African Student Union Is Founded

Norway Annexes Svalbard

Chesterton Critiques Modernism and Defends Christianity

Germany Attempts to Restructure the Versailles Treaty

Baker Dances in La Revue nègre

Greece Invades Bulgaria

Armstrong Records with the Hot Five

WSM Launches The Grand Ole Opry

Berg’s Wozzeck Premieres in Berlin

Vernadsky Publishes The Biosphere

Mail-Order Clubs Revolutionize Book Sales

Chinese Civil War

Launching of the First Liquid-Fueled Rocket

Durant Publishes The Story of Philosophy

British Workers Launch General Strike

Piłsudski Seizes Power in Poland

Air Commerce Act Creates a Federal Airways System

Railway Labor Act Provides for Mediation of Labor Disputes

Eddington Publishes The Internal Constitution of the Stars

Treaty of Ankara

Warner Bros. Introduces Talking Motion Pictures

Ederle Swims the English Channel

National Broadcasting Company Is Founded

League of Nations Adopts International Slavery Convention

Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises Speaks for the Lost Generation

Keaton’s The General Is Released

Heidegger Publishes Being and Time

Kuleshov and Pudovkin Introduce Montage to Filmmaking

Lang Expands the Limits of Filmmaking with Metropolis

Lemaître Proposes the Big Bang Theory

Number of U.S. Automakers Falls to Forty-Four

Oort Proves the Spiral Structure of the Milky Way

U.S. Food and Drug Administration Is Established

British Broadcasting Corporation Is Chartered

Heisenberg Articulates the Uncertainty Principle

Eastman Kodak Is Found to Be in Violation of the Sherman Act

McFadden Act Regulates Branch Banking

Indiana Dunes Are Preserved as a State Park

Monet’s Water Lilies Are Shown at the Musée de L’Orangerie

Lindbergh Makes the First Nonstop Transatlantic Flight

Brecht and Weill Collaborate on the Mahagonny Songspiel

Rodgers Cuts His First Record for RCA Victor

Sacco and Vanzetti Are Executed

The Jazz Singer Premieres as the First “Talkie”

Ellington Begins Performing at the Cotton Club

Show Boat Is the First American Musical to Emphasize Plot

Buñuel and Dalí Champion Surrealism in An Andalusian Dog

Bush Builds the First Differential Analyzer

Smith-Hoover Campaign

Szent-Györgyi Discovers Vitamin C

Papanicolaou Develops a Test for Diagnosing Uterine Cancer

Muslim Brotherhood Is Founded in Egypt

Amos ’n’ Andy Radio Show Goes on the Air

Sound Technology Revolutionizes the Motion-Picture Industry

Australia Begins the Flying Doctor Service

Shakhty Case Debuts Show Trials in Moscow

Gamow Explains Radioactive Alpha Decay with Quantum Tunneling

Great Britain Lowers the Voting Age for Women

Mead Publishes Coming of Age in Samoa

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Fleming Discovers Penicillin in Molds

Oil Companies Cooperate in a Cartel Covering the Middle East

Stalin Introduces Central Planning

Undset Accepts the Nobel Prize in Literature

Baylor Plan Introduces Prepaid Hospital Care

Hallelujah Is the First Important Black Musical Film

Hubble Confirms the Expanding Universe

Loewy Pioneers American Industrial Design

The Bedbug and The Bathhouse Exemplify Revolutionary Theater

Berger Studies the Human Electroencephalogram

Maginot Line Is Built

All Quiet on the Western Front Stresses the Futility of War

Trotsky Is Sent into Exile

Lateran Treaty

Valentine’s Day Massacre

League of United Latin American Citizens Is Founded

First Academy Awards Honor Film Achievement

Tacna-Arica Compromise

Agricultural Marketing Act

Drinker and Shaw Develop a Mechanical Respirator

Gödel Proves Incompleteness-Inconsistency for Formal Systems

Western Wall Riots

The Maltese Falcon Introduces the Hard-Boiled Detective Novel

The Sound and the Fury Launches Faulkner’s Career

U.S. Stock Market Crashes

Great Depression

New York’s Museum of Modern Art Opens to the Public

Serengeti Game Reserve Is Created

Schmidt Invents the Corrector for the Schmidt Camera and Telescope

Mass Deportations of Mexicans

Americans Embrace Radio Entertainment

Guthrie’s Populist Songs Reflect the Depression-Era United States

Hindemith Advances Music as a Social Activity

Hollywood Enters Its Golden Age

Invention of the Slug Rejector Spreads Use of Vending Machines

Jung Develops Analytical Psychology

Wolman Begins Investigating Water and Sewage Systems

Studio System Dominates Hollywood Filmmaking

Dutch Elm Disease Arrives in the United States

Lyot’s Coronagraph Allows Observation of the Sun’s Outer Atmosphere

Zinsser Develops an Immunization Against Typhus

Pauling Develops His Theory of the Chemical Bond

Jansky’s Experiments Lead to Radio Astronomy

Von Sternberg Makes Dietrich a Superstar

Crane Publishes The Bridge

Luce Founds Fortune Magazine

Tombaugh Discovers Pluto

Gandhi Leads the Salt March

Hawk’s Nest Tunnel Construction Leads to Disaster

Midgley Introduces Dichlorodifluoromethane as a Refrigerant Gas

Haile Selassie Is Crowned Emperor of Ethiopia

Canadian National Parks Act

First Manned Bathysphere Dives

Hoover Signs the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act

Nation of Islam Is Founded

Lambeth Conference Allows Artificial Contraception

Bennett Era in Canada

Japanese American Citizens League Is Founded

Auden’s Poems Speak for a Generation

Canada Enacts Depression-Era Relief Legislation

First Grand Slam of Golf

Du Pont Introduces Freon

Bank of United States Fails

Karloff and Lugosi Become Kings of Horror

Ultramares Case Establishes Liability for Auditors

Gangster Films Become Popular

Chandrasekhar Calculates the Upper Limit of a White Dwarf Star’s Mass

The Group Theatre Flourishes

Lawrence Develops the Cyclotron

India Signs the Delhi Pact

Nevada Legalizes Gambling

Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye Exemplifies Functionalist Architecture

Scottsboro Trials

First Electron Microscope Is Constructed

Second Spanish Republic Is Proclaimed

Empire State Building Opens

Credit-Anstalt Bank of Austria Fails

Piccard Travels to the Stratosphere by Balloon

Yellow River Flood

International Bible Students Association Becomes Jehovah’s Witnesses

Whitney Museum of American Art Opens in New York

Formation of the British Commonwealth of Nations

Berle and Means Discuss Corporate Control

Céline’s Journey to the End of the Night Expresses Interwar Cynicism

Gilson’s Spirit of Medieval Philosophy Reassesses Christian Thought

Domagk Discovers That Sulfonamides Can Save Lives

Development of Negritude

El Salvador’s Military Massacres Civilians

Stimson Doctrine

Reconstruction Finance Corporation Is Created

Chadwick Discovers the Neutron

De Valera Is Elected President of the Irish Dáil

Dedication of the Sydney Harbour Bridge

Norris-La Guardia Act Strengthens Labor Organizations

Cockcroft and Walton Split the Atom

Stalin Restricts Soviet Composers

Socialist Realism Is Mandated in Soviet Literature

First Transatlantic Solo Flight by a Woman

Jooss’s Antiwar Dance The Green Table Premieres

St. Lawrence Seaway Treaty

Ottawa Agreements

Bonus March

Canada’s First Major Socialist Movement

Anderson Discovers the Positron

Poona Pact Grants Representation to India’s Untouchables

Wright Founds the Taliesin Fellowship

Antitrust Prosecution Forces RCA to Restructure

Franklin D. Roosevelt Is Elected U.S. President

Great Famine Strikes the Soviet Union

Huxley’s Brave New World Forecasts Technological Totalitarianism

Billie Holiday Begins Her Recording Career

Forty-Second Street Defines 1930’s Film Musicals

Kallet and Schlink Publish 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs

First Artificial Radioactive Element Is Developed

Coward’s DESIGN FOR LIVING Epitomizes the 1930’s

Italy Creates the Industrial Reconstruction Institute

Hitler Comes to Power in Germany

Japan Withdraws from the League of Nations

Reichstag Fire

Perkins Becomes First Woman Secretary of Labor

Nazi Concentration Camps Begin Operating

Good Neighbor Policy

The Hundred Days

Enabling Act of 1933

U.S. Civilian Conservation Corps Is Established

Tennessee Valley Authority Is Created

Banking Act of 1933 Reorganizes the American Banking System

Roosevelt Signs the National Industrial Recovery Act

First Major League Baseball All-Star Game

Soviets Open the White Sea-Baltic Canal

Iraqi Army Slaughters Assyrian Christians

Marshall Writes The People’s Forests

Work Begins on the Grand Coulee Dam

Lewis Convenes the Inklings

Roosevelt Creates the Commodity Credit Corporation

Fermi Proposes the Neutrino Theory of Beta Decay

United States Recognizes Russia’s Bolshevik Regime

Canonization of Bernadette Soubirous

End of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama’s Rule

Benedict Publishes Patterns of Culture

Discovery of the Cherenkov Effect

Lubitsch’s The Merry Widow Opens New Vistas for Film Musicals

Soviet Union Bans Abstract Art

Squier Founds Muzak

Toynbee’s Metahistorical Approach Sparks Debate

Zwicky and Baade Propose a Theory of Neutron Stars

Hitchcock Becomes Synonymous with Suspense

Production Code Gives Birth to Screwball Comedy

Dust Bowl Devastates the Great Plains

Radar Is Developed

Rivera’s Rockefeller Center Mural Is Destroyed

Stavisky Riots

Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp Act

Philippine Independence Act

Police Apprehend Bonnie and Clyde

Securities and Exchange Commission Is Established

Federal Communications Commission Is Established by Congress

Indian Reorganization Act

Federal Credit Union Act

Taylor Grazing Act

Great Blood Purge

Miller’s Tropic of Cancer Stirs Controversy

Gibbon Develops the Heart-Lung Machine

Mao’s Long March

Marshall and Leopold Form the Wilderness Society

Yukawa Proposes the Existence of Mesons

Stalin Begins the Purge Trials

Goodman Begins His Let’s Dance Broadcasts

Balanchine’s Serenade Inaugurates American Ballet

Japan Renounces Disarmament Treaties

Chapman Determines the Lunar Atmospheric Tide at Moderate Latitudes

Penguin Develops a Line of Paperback Books

Turing Invents the Universal Turing Machine

Richter Develops a Scale for Measuring Earthquake Strength

Schiaparelli’s Boutique Mingles Art and Fashion

Carothers Invents Nylon

Exhibition of American Abstract Painting Opens in New York

Odets’s Awake and Sing! Becomes a Model for Protest Drama

Temple Receives a Special Academy Award

Works Progress Administration Is Established

Arbitration Affirms National Responsibility for Pollution

Soil Conservation Service Is Established

Black Monday

Formation of Alcoholics Anonymous

Tansley Proposes the Term “Ecosystem”

Wagner Act

Roosevelt Signs the Social Security Act

Banking Act of 1935 Centralizes U.S. Monetary Control

Federal Theatre Project Promotes Live Theater

Neutrality Acts

Top Hat Establishes the Astaire-Rogers Dance Team

Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess Opens in New York

League of Nations Applies Economic Sanctions Against Italy

King Returns to Power in Canada

Egas Moniz Develops the Prefrontal Lobotomy

Armstrong Demonstrates FM Radio Broadcasting

Congress of Industrial Organizations Is Founded

New Zealand’s First Labour Party Administration

Lehmann Discovers the Earth’s Inner Core

Müller Invents the Field Emission Microscope

France Nationalizes Its Banking and Industrial Sectors

Consumers Union of the United States Emerges

Ford Foundation Is Established

Tudor’s Jardin aux lilas Premieres in London

Soviets Condemn Shostakovich’s Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District

Darling Founds the National Wildlife Federation

Keynes Proposes Government Management of the Economy

Corporatism Comes to Paraguay

German Troops March into the Rhineland

Boulder Dam Is Completed

Great Uprising of Arabs in Palestine

Robinson-Patman Act Restricts Price Discrimination

The DC-3 Opens a New Era of Air Travel

Spanish Civil War Begins

Germany Hosts the Summer Olympics

Claretian Martyrs Are Executed in Spain

Carnegie Redefines Self-Help Literature

BBC Airs the First High-Definition Television Program

Reciprocal Trade Act

Fluorescent Lighting Is Introduced

Luce Launches Life Magazine

Germany and Japan Sign the Anti-Comintern Pact

Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace

Edward VIII Abdicates the British Throne

Dreyfuss Designs the Bell 300 Telephone

Prouvé Pioneers Architectural Prefabrication

Aalto Designs Villa Mairea

Renoir’s Films Explore Social and Political Themes

Segrè Identifies the First Artificial Element

Adams Lobbies Congress to Preserve Kings Canyon

Embargo on Arms to Spain

Supreme Court-Packing Fight

Delaware River Project Begins

Krebs Describes the Citric Acid Cycle

Pius XI Urges Resistance Against Nazism

Britain Separates Burma from India

Raids on Guernica

Hindenburg Dirigible Bursts into Flames

Egypt Joins the League of Nations

Golden Gate Bridge Opens

Theiler Develops a Treatment for Yellow Fever

Reber Builds the First Intentional Radio Telescope

Berg’s Lulu Opens in Zurich

Picasso Exhibits Guernica

China Declares War on Japan

Nazi Germany Hosts the Degenerate Art Exhibition

Miller-Tydings Act Legalizes Retail Price Maintenance

Tolkien Redefines Fantasy Literature

Pittman-Robertson Act Provides State Wildlife Funding

Weidenreich Reconstructs the Face of Peking Man

The Diary of a Country Priest Inspires American Readers

Rape of Nanjing

Disney Releases Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

Barnard Publishes The Functions of the Executive

Callendar Connects Industry with Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

Hofmann Synthesizes the Potent Psychedelic Drug LSD-25

John Muir Trail Is Completed

Golden Age of American Science Fiction

Kapitsa Explains Superfluidity

Our Town Opens on Broadway

Fannie Mae Promotes Home Ownership

The Anschluss

Rise of Commercial Oil Industry in Saudi Arabia

Mexico Nationalizes Foreign Oil Properties

Wheeler-Lea Act Broadens FTC Control over Advertising

Cerletti and Bini Use Electroshock to Treat Schizophrenia

Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo Debuts

HUAC Is Established

Chinese Forces Break Yellow River Levees

Natural Gas Act

Fair Labor Standards Act

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

Evian Conference

First Grand Slam of Tennis

Munich Conference

Death of Maria Faustina Kowalska

Carlson and Kornei Make the First Xerographic Photocopy

Welles Broadcasts The War of the Worlds


Hahn Splits the Uranium Atom

Buck Receives the Nobel Prize in Literature

Bourbaki Group Publishes Éléments de mathématique

Ford Defines the Western in Stagecoach

Müller Discovers the Insecticidal Properties of DDT

Nazi Extermination of the Jews

Bill Monroe and the Blue Grass Boys Define Bluegrass Music

Marian Anderson Is Barred from Constitution Hall

Oppenheimer Calculates the Nature of Black Holes

Pius XII Becomes Pope

Sherlock Holmes Film Series Begins

The Grapes of Wrath Portrays Depression-Era America

Italy Invades and Annexes Albania

American Television Debuts at the World’s Fair

First U.S. Food Stamp Program Begins

Dedication of the Baseball Hall of Fame

Stalin Suppresses the Russian Orthodox Church

United States Begins Mobilization for World War II

The Wizard of Oz Premieres

Nazi-Soviet Pact

Germany Invades Poland

Canada Enters World War II

Rockefeller Center Is Completed

Russo-Finnish War

Gone with the Wind Premieres

García Lorca’s Poet in New York Is Published

Wright’s Native Son Depicts Racism in America

Moore’s Subway Sketches Record War Images

Soviets Massacre Polish Prisoners of War

Germany Invades Norway

Florey and Chain Develop Penicillin as an Antibiotic

Roosevelt Uses Business Leaders for World War II Planning

Collapse of France

Gypsies Are Exterminated in Nazi Death Camps

Evacuation of Dunkirk

United States Begins Building a Two-Ocean Navy

Congress Centralizes Regulation of U.S. Commercial Air Traffic

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Is Formed

Battle of Britain

Japan Announces the Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere

Italy Invades British Somaliland

Ogdensburg Agreement

Japan Occupies Indochinese Ports

First Color Television Broadcast

Lascaux Cave Paintings Are Discovered

Italy Invades Egypt

Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapses

Disney’s Fantasia Premieres

Koestler Examines the Dark Side of Communism

Arroyo Seco Freeway Opens in Los Angeles