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Great Events from History: The Nineteenth Century

Table of Contents

Arabic Literary Renaissance



Development of Working-Class Libraries



Spread of the Waltz



Emergence of the Primitives



Davy Develops the Arc Lamp



Professional Theaters Spread Throughout America



First Asteroid Is Discovered



House of Representatives Elects Jefferson President



Tripolitan War



Flinders Explores Australia



Britain Adopts Gas Lighting



Cobbett Founds the Political Register



U.S. Military Academy Is Established



Trevithick Patents the High-Pressure Steam Engine



Lambton Begins Trigonometrical Survey of India



Dalton Formulates the Atomic Theory of Matter



Elgin Ships Parthenon Marbles to England



Marbury v. Madison



Louisiana Purchase



Great Britain Begins Colonizing Tasmania



British and Foreign Bible Society Is Founded



Saussure Publishes His Research on Plant Metabolism



Ohio Enacts the First Black Codes



Lewis and Clark Expedition



Twelfth Amendment Is Ratified



Bonaparte Is Crowned Napoleon I



Burr’s Conspiracy



Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony Introduces the Romantic Age



Exploration of West Africa



Battle of Trafalgar



Battle of Austerlitz



Pike Explores the American Southwest



Bowdler Publishes The Family Shakespeare



Moore Publishes Irish Melodies



Rise of the Knickerbocker School



Congress Bans Importation of African Slaves



Hegel Publishes The Phenomenology of Spirit



Maiden Voyage of the Clermont



Ottomans Suppress the Janissary Revolt



Tenskwatawa Founds Prophetstown



American Fur Company Is Chartered



Dos de Mayo Insurrection in Spain



Peninsular War in Spain



Lamarck Publishes Zoological Philosophy



Fletcher v. Peck



Astorian Expeditions Explore the Pacific Northwest Coast



Hidalgo Issues El Grito de Dolores



Mexican War of Independence



Egypt Fights the Wahh?b?s



Construction of the National Road



Muhammad ‘Al? Has the Maml?ks Massacred



Luddites Destroy Industrial Machines



Krupp Works Open at Essen



Battle of Tippecanoe



Brothers Grimm Publish Fairy Tales



Burckhardt Discovers Egypt’s Abu Simbel



War of 1812



Napoleon Invades Russia



Battle of Salamanca



Battle of Borodino



Founding of McGill University



Bolívar’s Military Campaigns



Creek War



Battle of the Thames



Battle of Leipzig



Fraunhofer Invents the Spectroscope



Scott Publishes Waverley



Exploration of Arabia



Goya Paints Third of May 1808* Execution of the Citizens of Madrid



Communitarian Experiments at New Harmony



France’s Bourbon Dynasty Is Restored



Britain Acquires the Cape Colony



Congress of Vienna



Hartford Convention



Westward American Migration Begins



Biedermeier Furniture Style Becomes Popular



Battle of New Orleans



Treaty of Ghent Takes Effect



Tambora Volcano Begins Violent Eruption



Red River Raids



Organization of the German Confederation



Battle of Waterloo



Second Peace of Paris



Laënnec Invents the Stethoscope



Rossini’s The Barber of Seville Debuts



Second Bank of the United States Is Chartered



African Methodist Episcopal Church Is Founded



American Bible Society Is Founded



Rise of the Cockney School



Ricardo Identifies Seven Key Economic Principles



Zulu Expansion



San Martín’s Military Campaigns



Third Maratha War



Seminole Wars



Search for the Northwest Passage



Schopenhauer Publishes The World as Will and Idea



Irving’s Sketch Book Transforms American Literature



Babbage Designs a Mechanical Calculator



Adams-Onís Treaty Gives the United States Florida



McCulloch v. Maryland



Unitarian Church Is Founded



Savannah Is the First Steamship to Cross the Atlantic



British Parliament Passes the Six Acts



China’s Stele School of Calligraphy Emerges



Free Public School Movement



Social Reform Movement



Jesuits Are Expelled from Russia, Naples, and Spain



Europeans Explore the Antarctic



Costumbrismo Movement



London’s Cato Street Conspirators Plot Assassinations



Missouri Compromise



Congress Passes Land Act of 1820



Neapolitan Revolution



Ampère Reveals Magnetism’s Relationship to Electricity



Greeks Fight for Independence from the Ottoman Empire



Santa Fe Trail Opens



Jedediah Smith Explores the Far West



Exploration of North Africa



Brazil Becomes Independent



Great Britain Withdraws from the Concert of Europe



Hokusai Produces Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji



Hartford Female Seminary Is Founded



Wakley Introduces The Lancet



President Monroe Articulates the Monroe Doctrine



British Parliament Repeals the Combination Acts



Paris Salon of 1824



Ranke Develops Systematic History



Buckland Presents the First Public Dinosaur Description



Gibbons v. Ogden



First Performance of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony



U.S. Election of 1824



Great Java War



Stockton and Darlington Railway Opens



Erie Canal Opens



Decembrist Revolt



First Meetings of the Plymouth Brethren



Young Germany Movement



Portugal’s Miguelite Wars



Arnold Reforms Rugby School



Cherokee Phoenix Begins Publication



Second Russo-Turkish War



Roman Catholic Emancipation



Webster Publishes the First American Dictionary of English



U.S. Election of 1828



Irish Immigration to Canada



Treaty of Adrianople



British Abolish Suttee in India



Scientists Study Remains of Giant Moas



American Renaissance in Literature



Trail of Tears



Southerners Advance Proslavery Arguments



Barbizon School of Landscape Painting Flourishes



Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Opens



Webster and Hayne Debate Slavery and Westward Expansion



Hugo’s Hernani Incites Rioting



Smith Founds the Mormon Church



Congress Passes Indian Removal Act



France Conquers Algeria



Lyell Publishes Principles of Geology



July Revolution Deposes Charles X



Belgian Revolution



Delacroix Paints Liberty Leading the People



First Polish Rebellion



Mazzini Founds Young Italy



Hiroshige Completes The Tokaido Fifty-Three Stations



Garrison Begins Publishing The Liberator



Cherokee Cases



Tocqueville Visits America



McCormick Invents the Reaper



Turner Launches Slave Insurrection



Faraday Converts Magnetic Force into Electricity



Turko-Egyptian Wars



Abdelkader Leads Algeria Against France



La Sylphide Inaugurates Romantic Ballet’s Golden Age



British Parliament Passes the Reform Act of 1832



Jackson Vetoes Rechartering of the Bank of the United States



Nullification Controversy



British Parliament Passes the Factory Act



Great Britain Occupies the Falkland Islands



Oxford Movement Begins



Slavery Is Abolished Throughout the British Empire



Birth of the Penny Press



Carlist Wars Unsettle Spain



American Anti-Slavery Society Is Founded



Oberlin College Opens



German States Join to Form Customs Union



Clay Begins American Whig Party



British Parliament Passes New Poor Law



Blair Patents His First Seed Planter



Finney Lectures on “Revivals of Religion”



South Africa’s Great Trek Begins



Strauss Publishes The Life of Jesus Critically Examined



Andersen Publishes His First Fairy Tales



Melbourne, Australia, Is Founded



British Parliament Passes Municipal Corporations Act



Texas Revolution



Transcendental Movement Arises in New England



Colt Patents the Revolver



Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad Opens



Mazzini Begins London Exile



Panic of 1837 Begins



Rebellions Rock British Canada



Mount Holyoke Female Seminary Opens



Aroostook War



Schwann and Virchow Develop Cell Theory



Chartist Movement



Queen Victoria’s Coronation



Blanc Publishes The Organization of Labour



Daguerre and Niépce Invent Daguerreotype Photography



First Afghan War



Layard Explores and Excavates Assyrian Ruins



Amistad Slave Revolt



First Opium War



Stephens Begins Uncovering Mayan Antiquities



American Era of “Old” Immigration



Russian Realist Movement



Liebig Advocates Artificial Fertilizers



Great Britain Establishes Penny Postage



British Houses of Parliament Are Rebuilt



U.S. Election of 1840



Upper and Lower Canada Unite



Congress Passes Preemption Act of 1841



Tennyson Publishes “Morte d’Arthur”



Commonwealth v. Hunt



Frémont Explores the American West



Rhode Island’s Dorr Rebellion



Webster-Ashburton Treaty Settles Maine’s Canadian Border



Carlyle Publishes Past and Present



Wagner’s Flying Dutchman Debuts



First Minstrel Shows



Wilson Launches The Economist



Anti-Irish Riots Erupt in Philadelphia



Morse Sends First Telegraph Message



Goodyear Patents Vulcanized Rubber



Clipper Ship Era Begins



Modern Baseball Begins



Great Irish Famine



Newman Becomes a Roman Catholic



Mormons Begin Migration to Utah



Battle of Palo Alto



Mexican War



British Parliament Repeals the Corn Laws



United States Acquires Oregon Territory



United States Occupies California and the Southwest



Establishment of Independent U.S. Treasury



Smithsonian Institution Is Founded



Howe Patents His Sewing Machine



Safe Surgical Anesthesia Is Demonstrated



Boole Publishes The Mathematical Analysis of Logic



Hamburg-Amerika Shipping Line Begins



Taos Rebellion



Semmelweis Develops Antiseptic Procedures



Liberia Proclaims Its Independence



Battle of Chapultepec



Douglass Launches The North Star



Exploration of East Africa



Italian Revolution of 1848



California Gold Rush Begins



Marx and Engels Publish The Communist Manifesto



Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Ends Mexican War



Paris Revolution of 1848



Prussian Revolution of 1848



Second Anglo-Sikh War



Ground Is Broken for the Washington Monument



Seneca Falls Convention



Swiss Confederation Is Formed



Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Begins



Chinese Begin Immigrating to California



First Test of Canada’s Responsible Government



Dostoevski Is Exiled to Siberia



Rise of Burlesque and Vaudeville



First U.S. Petroleum Refinery Is Built



Underground Railroad Flourishes



Clausius Formulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics



Compromise of 1850



California’s Bloody Island Massacre



Second Fugitive Slave Law



Tennyson Becomes England’s Poet Laureate



Gold Is Discovered in New South Wales



Melville Publishes Moby Dick



Comte Advances His Theory of Positivism



China’s Taiping Rebellion



London Hosts the First World’s Fair



Akron Woman’s Rights Convention



America Wins the First America’s Cup Race



Modern New York Times Is Founded



Stowe Publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin



Dickens Publishes Bleak House



Canada’s Grand Trunk Railway Is Incorporated



Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Becomes Emperor of France



Qing Dynasty Confronts the Nian Rebellion



Pacific Railroad Surveys



National Council of Colored People Is Founded



Burton Enters Mecca in Disguise



Crimean War



Livingstone Sees the Victoria Falls



Gadsden Purchase Completes the U.S.-Mexican Border



Wallace’s Expeditions Give Rise to Biogeography



Perry Opens Japan to Western Trade



Congress Passes the Kansas-Nebraska Act



Birth of the Republican Party



Siege of Sevastopol



Battle of Balaklava



Nightingale Takes Charge of Nursing in the Crimea



Pius IX Decrees the Immaculate Conception Dogma



Bessemer Patents Improved Steel-Processing Method



Courbet Establishes Realist Art Movement



Walker Invades Nicaragua



Muslim Rebellions in China



Bleeding Kansas



Neanderthal Skull Is Found in Germany



Flaubert Publishes Madame Bovary



Second Opium War



Pasteur Begins Developing Germ Theory and Microbiology



First African American University Opens



Dred Scott v. Sandford



Otis Installs the First Passenger Elevator



Sepoy Mutiny Against British Rule



New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children Opens



Texas’s Cart War



British Parliament Passes the Matrimonial Causes Act



Brunel Launches the SS Great Eastern



Virgin Mary Appears to Bernadette Soubirous



Fraser River Gold Rush Begins



Lincoln-Douglas Debates



Rothschild Is First Jewish Member of British Parliament



France and Spain Invade Vietnam



Mill Publishes On Liberty



Smiles Publishes Self-Help



Battle of Solferino



Last Slave Ship Docks at Mobile



Napoleon III and Francis Joseph I Meet at Villafranca



Commercial Oil Drilling Begins



Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry



Darwin Publishes On the Origin of Species



China’s Self-Strengthening Movement Arises



Lenoir Patents the Internal Combustion Engine



Pony Express Expedites Transcontinental Mail



Apache and Navajo War



Garibaldi’s Redshirts Land in Sicily



Lincoln Is Elected U.S. President



Archaeopteryx Lithographica Is Discovered



Morris Founds Design Firm



Apache Wars



Establishment of the Confederate States of America



Emancipation of Russian Serfs



Lincoln Is Inaugurated President



Italy Is Proclaimed a Kingdom



U.S. Civil War



First Battle of Bull Run



Transcontinental Telegraph Is Completed



France Occupies Mexico



Cixi’s Coup Preserves Qing Dynasty Power



Spencer Introduces Principles of Social Darwinism



Battle of the Monitor and the Virginia



Lincoln Signs the Homestead Act



Lincoln Signs the Morrill Land Grant Act



Great Sioux War



Bismarck Becomes Prussia’s Minister-President



Slave Traders Begin Ravaging Easter Island



Bah?’?ism Takes Form



Greece Unifies Under the Glücksburg Dynasty



Lincoln Issues the Emancipation Proclamation



First Underground Railroad Opens in London



Russia Crushes Polish Rebellion



Congress Passes the National Bank Acts



Union Enacts the First National Draft Law



Paris’s Salon des Refusés Opens



Battles of Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga



Long Walk of the Navajos



Reconstruction of the South



Hill Launches Housing Reform in London



Danish-Prussian War



“In God We Trust” Appears on U.S. Coins



International Red Cross Is Launched



First International Is Founded



Sherman Marches Through Georgia and the Carolinas



Sand Creek Massacre



Pius IX Issues the Syllabus of Errors



Mendel Proposes Laws of Heredity



Naturalist Movement Begins



Basuto War



Congress Creates the Freedmen’s Bureau



Surrender at Appomattox and Assassination of Lincoln



Paraguayan War



Watie Is Last Confederate General to Surrender



Booth Establishes the Salvation Army



Vassar College Opens



Morant Bay Rebellion



Mississippi Enacts First Post-Civil War Black Code



Thirteenth Amendment Is Ratified



Birth of the Ku Klux Klan



North German Confederation Is Formed



Civil Rights Act of 1866



Memphis and New Orleans Race Riots



Suffragists Protest the Fourteenth Amendment



Fenian Risings for Irish Independence



Red Cloud’s War



Austria and Prussia’s Seven Weeks’ War



Battle of Könniggrätz



First Transatlantic Cable Is Completed



Fetterman Massacre



Chisholm Trail Opens



Lister Publishes His Theory on Antiseptic Surgery



Marx Publishes Das Kapital



U.S. Department of Education Is Created



Russia Sells Alaska to the United States



Austrian Ausgleich



British North America Act



British Parliament Passes the Reform Act of 1867



Nobel Patents Dynamite



Medicine Lodge Creek Treaty



National Grange Is Formed



Bakunin Founds the Social Democratic Alliance



Last Convicts Land in Western Australia



Japan’s Meiji Restoration



Impeachment of Andrew Johnson



Lartet Discovers the First Cro-Magnon Remains



British Expedition to Ethiopia



Promulgation of Japan’s Charter Oath



Great Britain’s First Trades Union Congress Forms



Sholes Patents a Practical Typewriter



Fourteenth Amendment Is Ratified



Burlingame Treaty



Spanish Revolution of 1868



Cuba’s Ten Years’ War



Washita River Massacre



Gladstone Becomes Prime Minister of Britain



Baseball’s First Professional Club Forms



First Modern Department Store Opens in Paris



Golden Age of Flamenco Begins



Mendeleyev Develops the Periodic Table of Elements



Westinghouse Patents His Air Brake



Woman Suffrage Associations Begin Forming



First Transcontinental Railroad Is Completed



Scandals Rock the Grant Administration



First Riel Rebellion



Suez Canal Opens



Wyoming Gives Women the Vote



Vatican I Decrees Papal Infallibility Dogma



Aesthetic Movement Arises



Japan Expands into Korea



Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society Is Founded



Standard Oil Company Is Incorporated



Schliemann Excavates Ancient Troy



Franco-Prussian War



Battle of Sedan



Prussian Army Besieges Paris



Darwin Publishes The Descent of Man



Díaz Drives Mexico into Civil War



Kulturkampf Against the Catholic Church in Germany



Great American Buffalo Slaughter



Przhevalsky Explores Central Asia



German States Unite Within German Empire



Third French Republic Is Established



Grant Signs Indian Appropriation Act



Paris Commune



Barnum Creates the First Modern American Circus



Treaty of Washington Settles U.S. Claims vs. Britain



Great Chicago Fire



Dominion Lands Act Fosters Canadian Settlement



Metropolitan Museum of Art Opens



Yellowstone Becomes the First U.S. National Park



Ward Launches a Mail-Order Business



Ukrainian Mennonites Begin Settling in Canada



Exploration of Africa’s Congo Basin



Zanzibar Outlaws Slavery



Second British-Ashanti War



“Crime of 1873”



Congress Passes the Comstock Antiobscenity Law



Three Emperors’ League Is Formed



Canada Forms the North-West Mounted Police



Anthony Is Tried for Voting



Canada’s Mackenzie Era



First Impressionist Exhibition



Red River War



Glidden Patents Barbed Wire



Supreme Court of Canada Is Established



Bizet’s Carmen Premieres in Paris



Congress Enacts the Page Law



Minor v. Happersett



Theosophical Society Is Founded



Eddy Establishes the Christian Science Movement



Post-Impressionist Movement Begins



Canada’s Indian Act



Spanish Constitution of 1876



Sioux War



Bulgarian Revolt Against the Ottoman Empire



Otto Invents a Practical Internal Combustion Engine



Philadelphia Hosts the Centennial Exposition



Battle of the Little Bighorn



Bell Demonstrates the Telephone



Declaration of the Rights of Women



First Performance of Wagner’s Ring Cycle



American Library Association Is Founded



Former Samurai Rise in Satsuma Rebellion



Hayes Becomes President



Third Russo-Turkish War



Nez Perce War



Texas’s Salinero Revolt



Edison Patents the Cylinder Phonograph



Muybridge Photographs a Galloping Horse



Irving Manages London’s Lyceum Theatre



Congress of Berlin



Macdonald Returns as Canada’s Prime Minister



Germany Passes Anti-Socialist Law



A Doll’s House Introduces Modern Realistic Drama



Powell Publishes His Report on the American West



Battles of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift



Zulu War



War of the Pacific



Edison Demonstrates the Incandescent Lamp



Brahmin School of American Literature Flourishes



Roux Develops the Theory of Mitosis



Rise of Yellow Journalism



Irish Tenant Farmers Stage First “Boycott”



First Boer War



Bismarck Introduces Social Security Programs in Germany



Stevenson Publishes Treasure Island



London’s Savoy Theatre Opens



First Birth Control Clinic Opens in Amsterdam



Metchnikoff Advances the Cellular Theory of Immunity



Standard Oil Trust Is Organized



Koch Announces His Discovery of the Tuberculosis Bacillus



French Indochina War



Kilmainham Treaty Makes Concessions to Irish Nationalists



Arthur Signs the Chinese Exclusion Act



Triple Alliance Is Formed



Korean Military Mutinies Against Japanese Rule



Battle of Tel el Kebir



San Francisco’s Chinese Six Companies Association Forms



Galton Defines “Eugenics”



World’s First Skyscraper Is Built



Pendleton Act Reforms the Federal Civil Service



Brooklyn Bridge Opens



Krakatoa Volcano Erupts



Civil Rights Cases



Metropolitan Opera House Opens in New York



Gaudí Begins Barcelona’s Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Família



Maxim Patents His Machine Gun



New Guilds Promote the Arts and Crafts Movement



Decadent Movement Flourishes



Fabian Society Is Founded



Indian Legislative Council Enacts the Ilbert Bill



Siege of Khartoum



Gold Is Discovered in the Transvaal



U.S. Election of 1884



Berlin Conference Lays Groundwork for the Partition of Africa



Twain Publishes Adventures of Huckleberry Finn



British Parliament Passes the Franchise Act of 1884



Indian National Congress Is Founded



Second Riel Rebellion Begins



Rise of the Symbolist Movement



French Right Wing Revives During Boulanger Crisis



Benz Patents the First Practical Automobile



Pemberton Introduces Coca-Cola



Irish Home Rule Debate Dominates British Politics



Statue of Liberty Is Dedicated



American Federation of Labor Is Founded



Interstate Commerce Act



General Allotment Act Erodes Indian Tribal Unity



American Protective Association Is Formed



Goodwin Develops Celluloid Film



Conan Doyle Introduces Sherlock Holmes



Rodin Exhibits The Thinker



Ramón y Cajal Shows How Neurons Work in the Nervous System



Rhodes Amalgamates Kimberley Diamondfields



Dunlop Patents the Pneumatic Tire



Great Britain Strengthens Its Royal Navy



Japan Adopts a New Constitution



Eiffel Tower Is Dedicated



Johnstown Flood



Addams Opens Chicago’s Hull-House



First Pan-American Congress



Dahomey-French Wars



Rise of Tin Pan Alley Music



Mississippi Constitution Disfranchises Black Voters



U.S. Census Bureau Announces Closing of the Frontier



Women’s Rights Associations Unite



Harrison Signs the Sherman Antitrust Act



Behring Discovers the Diphtheria Antitoxin



Wounded Knee Massacre



Naismith Invents Basketball



Strowger Patents Automatic Dial Telephone System



Papal Encyclical on Labor



America’s “New” Immigration Era Begins



Toulouse-Lautrec Paints At the Moulin Rouge



Ellis Island Immigration Depot Opens



Diesel Patents the Diesel Engine



Anti-Japanese Yellow Peril Campaign Begins



Birth of the People’s Party



Hardie Becomes Parliament’s First Labour Member



Munch Paints The Scream



Nansen Attempts to Reach the North Pole



Chicago World’s Fair



New Zealand Women Win Voting Rights



British Subdue African Resistance in Rhodesia



National Council of Women of Canada Is Founded



Kellogg’s Corn Flakes Launch the Dry Cereal Industry



Ottomans Attempt to Exterminate Armenians



Franco-Russian Alliance



Pullman Strike



Kabo Reforms Begin Modernization of Korean Government



Sino-Japanese War



Dreyfus Affair



Debussy’s Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun Premieres



Hearst-Pulitzer Circulation War



Hawaii’s Last Monarch Abdicates



Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake Is Staged in St. Petersburg



Cuban War of Independence



Chinese Californians Form Native Sons of the Golden State



Germany’s Kiel Canal Opens



Washington’s Atlanta Compromise Speech



Röntgen Discovers X Rays



Nobel Bequeaths Funds for the Nobel Prizes



First Commercial Projection of Motion Pictures



Jameson Raid



Brooks Brothers Introduces Button-Down Shirts



Immigrant Farmers Begin Settling Western Canada



Herzl Founds the Zionist Movement



Sudanese War



Ethiopia Repels Italian Invasion



Modern Olympic Games Are Inaugurated



Plessy v. Ferguson



Marconi Patents the Wireless Telegraph



Laurier Becomes the First French Canadian Prime Minister



Klondike Gold Rush Begins



McKinley Is Elected President



First U.S. Hydroelectric Plant Opens at Niagara Falls



Ellis Publishes Sexual Inversion



Abel and Takamine Isolate Adrenaline



Greco-Turkish War



“Aspirin” Is Registered as a Trade Name



Bjerknes Founds Scientific Weather Forecasting



Congress Passes Dingley Tariff Act



Ross Establishes Malaria’s Transmission Vector



New Library of Congress Building Opens



Scramble for Chinese Concessions Begins



Beijerinck Discovers Viruses



Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party Is Formed



United States v. Wong Kim Ark



Stratosphere and Troposphere Are Discovered



Spanish-American War



Fashoda Incident Pits France vs. Britain



Moscow Art Theater Is Founded



Hilbert Publishes The Foundations of Geometry



Joplin Popularizes Ragtime Music and Dance



Rediscovery of Mendel’s Hereditary Theory



Philippine Insurrection



First Hague Peace Conference



Hay Articulates “Open Door” Policy Toward China



South African War



Siege of Mafeking



Freud Publishes The Interpretation of Dreams



Lebesgue Develops New Integration Theory



Wiechert Invents the Inverted Pendulum Seismograph



Puccini’s Tosca Premieres in Rome



Kodak Introduces Brownie Cameras



British Labour Party Is Formed



Evans Discovers Crete’s Minoan Civilization



Boxer Rebellion



Suppression of Yellow Fever



Zeppelin Completes the First Flying Dirigible



Galveston Hurricane



Dreiser Publishes Sister Carrie



Articulation of Quantum Theory



General Electric Opens Research Laboratory