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Encyclopedia of African-American Writing: Five Centuries of Contribution

Table of Contents

Table of Contents



Preface to the Second Edition, 2009



Introduction to the Third Edition



Abbott, Robert S. (Sengstacke)



Abu-Jamal, Mumia (né Wesley Cook)



Adichie, Chimamanda (AdichieSpeaks)



Affrilachian Poets



African American Review (aka Negro American Literature Forum, Black American Literature Forum)



African-American Vernacular English (AAVE; aka Black English, Negro Dialect, Ebonics)



Ai (chosen name, meaning “love” in Japanese) (née Florence Anthony; aka Florence Ai Ogawa)



Alexander, Elizabeth



Alexander’s Magazine



Allen, Richard



Allen, Samuel W. (Washington) (aka Paul Vesey)



Als, Hilton



American Negro Academy



Amini [Swahili: “faithful”], Johari [Swahili: “jewel”] (née Jewel Christine McLawler; aka Johari Kunjufu)



Amsterdam News



Anderson, Marian



Anderson, Regina M. (pen name: Ursala/ Ursula Trelling; married surname, Andrews)



Andrews, Raymond



Angelou, Maya (née Marguerite Annie Johnson)



Ansa, Tina McElroy



Anthologies of African-American Literature



Anthologies of African-American Literature, from Literary Journals



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Regional African-American Literature



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Special Topics and Audiences



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Specific Genres, Drama and Plays



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Specific Genres, Fiction



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Specific Genres, Nonfiction



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Specific Genres, Poetry, Verse, and Song



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Writers from 1619 through 1865, the Antebellum and Civil War Era



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Writers from 1920 to the Early 1940s, during the New Negro Era



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Written by and for Gay or Heterosexual Men



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Written by and for Heterosexual or Lesbian Women



Anthologies of African-American Literature, Written by and for Juveniles



Antislavery Periodicals



Antislavery Periodicals



Antislavery Periodicals



Antislavery Periodicals



Asante, Molefi Kete (né Arthur Lee Smith, Jr.)



Ashe, Jr., Arthur Robert



Atkins, Russell



Attaway, William



Aubert, Alvin (Bernard)



Baisden, Michael



Baker, Augusta (née Braxston; 2nd married surname: Alexander)



Baker, Jr., Houston A. (Alfred)



Baker, Kyle



Baldwin, James Arthur (né Jones)



Baltimore Afro-American



Bambara, Toni Cade (née Toni Cade)



Banks, Leslie Esdaile (aka L.A. Banks, Leslie)



Banneker, Benjamin



Baraka, Amiri (né Everett LeRoy Jones; pseudonym: LeRoi Jones)



Barber, Jesse Max



Barnes, Steven Emory



Barnett, Claude Albert



Barrax, Gerald W. (William)



Bass, Charlotta Amanda (née Spears)



Bayley, Solomon



Beasley, Delilah



Beatty, Paul



Beckham, Barry



Bell, James Madison



Bennett, Gwendolyn B.



Bennett, Hal



Bennett, Jr., Lerone



Berry, Mary Frances



Bibb, Henry (Walton)



Black Aesthetic



Black Arts Movement



Black Fire: An Anthology of African-American Writing



Black Lives Matter



Black Opals



Black Power



Black Scholar, The



BlackBoard African-American Bestsellers



Bogle, Donald



Bolden, Tonya



Bonner, Marita (Odette) (married surname: Occomy; aka Joseph Maree Andrew)



Bontemps, Arna Wendell



Bourne, St. Clair (Cecil)



Boyd, Melba (Joyce)



Bradley, Jr., David (Henry)



Braithwaite, William Stanley Beaumont



Brandon, Barbara (aka Barbara Brandon-Croft)



Brathwaite, Edward Kamau (né Lawson Edward Brathwaite)



Brawley, Benjamin (Griffith)



Braxton, Joanne (aka Jodi) (Margaret)



Briggs, Cyril Valentine



Broadside Press



Brooks, Gwendolyn (Elizabeth)



Brown, Cecil



Brown, “Charlotte Eugenia” (née Lottie Hawkins) Hawkins



Brown, Claude



Brown, Elaine (Meryl)



Brown, Frank London



Brown, Hallie Quinn



Brown, Jericho (jerichobrown)



Brown, Linda Beatrice (aka Linda Brown Bragg)



Brown, Lloyd (né Lloyd Louis Dight)



Brown, Sterling Allen



Brown, William Wells



Brownie’s Book, The



Bruce, Josephine Beall (née Willson)



Bryan, Ashley F.



Bullins, Ed (né Edward Artie) (aka Kingsley B. Bass, Jr.)



Bunche, Ralph (Johnson)



Burroughs, Margaret (née Taylor) (aka Margaret Taylor Goss, Margaret G. Taylor, Margaret G. Burroughs, Margaret Taylor-Burroughs)



Burroughs, Nannie Helen



Butler, Octavia E. (Estelle)



Cabrera, Lydia



Callaloo



Campbell, (Elizabeth) Bebe (née Moore)



Campbell, James Edwin



Carmichael (chosen name: Kwame Touré), Stokely (Standiford Churchill)



Carroll, Vinnette (Justine)



Cary, Mary Ann (née Shadd)



Cassells, Cyrus



Cave Canem



Cayton, Jr., Horace Roscoe



Channer, Colin



Chapman, Tracy



Chase-Riboud, Barbara



Chesnutt, Charles Waddell



Chicago Defender



Child, Lydia Maria (née Francis)



Childress, Alice



Chisholm, Shirley (Anita) (née St. Hill)



Christian, Barbara (Theresa)



Christian, Marcus Bruce



Clark, Kenneth B. (Bancroft)



Clark, Mamie (née Phipps)



Clark, Septima (née Poinsette)



Clarke, John Henrik



Cleage, Pearl (Michelle) (1st married name: Lomax)



Cleaver, (Leroy) Eldridge



Cliff, Michelle



Clifton, Lucille (née Thelma Lucille Sayles)



Coates, Ta-Nehisi



Cobb, Jr., Charles E.



Cobb, Jewell (née Plummer)



Cobb, William Montague



Cole (1st married name; 2nd married name: Robinson), Johnnetta (née Betsch)



Coleman, Wanda (née Evans)



Collier, Eugenia (Williams)



Collins, Kathleen (née Conwell)



Colón, Jesús



Colored American Magazine, The



Colter, Cyrus



Combahee River Collective (CRC)



Cone, James H. (Hal or Hall)



Cooper, Anna Julia (née Haywood)



Cooper, J. (Joan) California



Cornish, Sam (Samuel) (James)



Cornish, Samuel E.



Corrothers, James D. (David)



Cortez, Jayne



Cosby, Jr., Bill (William Henry)



Cose, Ellis (Jonathan)



Coste Lewis, Robin



Coston, Julia (née Ringwood)



Cotter, Jr., Joseph Seamon



Cotter, Sr., Joseph Seamon



Craft, William



Crafts, Hannah (Bond)



Crayton, Pearl



Crews, Donald



Crisis, The



Crosswaith, Frank Rudolph



Crouch, Stanley



Crummell, Alexander



Cruse, Harold Wright



Cullen, Countee (né Countée LeRoy Porter)



Curtis, Christopher Paul



Damas, Léon-Gontran



Dandridge, Raymond G. (Garfield)



Danner, Margaret (Esse)



Danticat, Edwidge



Dash, Julie



Dave, the Potter (aka David Drake)



Davis, Angela (Yvonne)



Davis, Arthur P. (Paul)



Davis, Frank Marshall (one-time pen name Bob Greene)



Davis, Ossie (né Raiford Chatman Davis)



Davis, Thulani (née Barbara Davis)



de Burgos, Julia



Deal, Borden (aka Loyse Deal, Lee Borden, Leigh Borden) (aka Her, Him, Us for his erotica)



Dee, Ruby (née Ruby Ann Wallace)



Delaney, Sara (“Sadie”) Marie (née Johnson) (1st married name: Peterson)



Delany, Annie Elizabeth (“Bessie”)



Delany, Clarissa (née Scott)



Delany, Martin R. (Robison)



Delany, Jr., Samuel (“Chip”) R. (Ray) (occasional pen names: K. Leslie Steiner, S. L. Kermit)



Delany, Sarah “Sadie” (Louise)



Demby, William



Dent, (Thomas) Tom (Covington)



Denzel Smith, Mychal (mychalsmith)



Derricotte, Toi (née Toinette Marie Webster)



De Veaux (aka Deveaux), Alexis



“Diddley,” “Bo” (né Otha Ellas Bates, adoptive name Ellas Bates McDaniel)



Dodson, Owen (Vincent)



Domino, Antoine “Fats” Dominique



Dorsey, Thomas (Andrew)



Douglass, Frederick (né Frederick Auld)



Douglass (married name), Sarah (née Mapps)



Dove, Rita (Frances)



Drake, St. Clair



Draper, Sharon M. (Mills)



Driskell, David Clyde



Du Bois, Shirley (Lola) (née Graham)



Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt)



Due, Tananarive



Dumas, Henry L.



Dunbar, Paul Laurence



Dunbar Nelson, Alice Ruth (née Alice Ruth Moore)



Dunham, Katherine



Dyson, Michael Eric



Eady, Cornelius



Early, Gerald (Lyn)



Ebony



Edelman, Marian Wright



Edmonds, Kenneth (Brian) “Babyface”



Elder, III, Lonne



Ellison, Ralph (Waldo)



Emanuel, Sr., James A. (Andrew)



Equiano, Olaudah (Gustavus Vassa)



Evans, Danielle (daniellevalore)



Evans, Mari



Everett, II, Percival (Leonard)



Evers-Williams, Myrlie (Louise) (née Beasley)



Fabio, Sarah (née Webster)



Fauset (married name: Harris), Jessie Redmon



Fax, Elton C. (Clay)



Feelings, Tom



Ferguson, Lloyd Noel



Fields, Julia



Fire!!



Fishburne, III, Laurence



Fisher (married name), Abby



Fisher, Rudolph (John Chauncey) (“Bud”)



Folktales



Ford, Nick Aaron



Forrest, Leon



Fortens, Grimkés, and Purvises



Fortune, Amos



Fortune, T. (Timothy) Thomas



Foster, Frances Smith



Fran, Ross



Franklin, J. E. (Jennie Elizabeth)



Franklin, John Hope



Frazier, E. (Edward) Franklin



Free Southern Theater (FST)



Freedom’s Journal



Freedomways: A Quarterly Review of the Negro Freedom Movement



French, William P. (Plummer)



Fuller, Jr., Charles H. (Henry)



Fuller, Hoyt



Gaines, Ernest J. (James)



Garland (married name), Hazel B. (née Hazel Barbara Maxine Hill)



Garnet, Henry Highland (né ?Trusty)



Garvey, Amy Euphemia (née Jacques)



Garvey, Jr., Marcus (Moziah)



Gates, Jr., Henry Louis “Skip”



Gayle, Jr., Addison



George, David



Gerima, Haile



Gibson, P. J. (Patricia Joann)



Giddings, Paula (Jane)



Giovanni, Nikki (née Yolande Cornelia Giovanni, Jr.)



Giscombe, C. (Cecil) S.



Gladwell, Malcolm



Goines, Donald (occasional pseudonym: “Al C. Clark”)



Goldberg, Whoopi (née Caryn Johnson)



Golden, Marita



Gomez, Jewelle



Gordone, Charles (né Charles Edward Fleming)



Graham, Lorenz (Bell)



Granville, Evelyn (née Boyd)



Greaves, “Bill” (né William Garfield Greaves)



Green, J. (Jacob) D.



Greenfield, Eloise



Greenlee, Sam



Gregory, “Dick” (Richard Claxton)



Griggs, Sutton E. (Elbert)



Grooms, Anthony (“Tony”)



Guinier, (Carol) Lani



Guy, Rosa (née Cuthbert)



Hairston, Andrea



Hall, Prince



Haley, Alex (Alexander Murray Palmer)



Hamilton, Virginia



Hammon, Briton



Hammon, Jupiter



Handy, W. C. (William Christopher)



Hansberry, Lorraine Vivian



Hansberry, William Leo



Hansen, Joyce (Viola)



Hare (aka Cuney-Hare), Maud (née Cuney)



Hare, Nathan



Harlem Renaissance



Harlem Renaissance, literary and scholarly journals of the “New Negro” era



Harlem Writers Guild



Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins (née Frances Ellen Watkins; occasional pseudonym: “Effie Afton”)



Harper, Michael S. (Steven)



Harrington, Oliver (“Ollie”) Wendell



Harris, E. (Everette) Lynn



Harris, Joel Chandler



Harris, Trudier (aka Trudier Harris-Lopez)



Haskins, James (“Jim”) S.



Hayden, Robert (né Asa Bundy Sheffey)



Haynes, Elizabeth (née Ross)



Haynes, Lemuel



Heard, Nathan C. (Cliff)



Hemphill, Essex



Henson, Matthew Alexander



Hercules, Frank



Hernton, Calvin C. (Coolidge)



Herron, Carolivia



Heyward, (Edwin) DuBose



Higginbotham, Jr., A. (Aloysius) Leon



Hill, Anita Faye



Hill Patricia, Collins



Hill, Donna



Himes, Chester (Bomar)



Hine, Darlene Clark



Hoagland, III, Everett H.



Holiday, Billie (née Eleanora Fagan)



Holly, James Theodore



Holman, M. (Moses) Carl



hooks, bell (née Gloria Jean Watkins)



Hopkins, Pauline (Elizabeth) (occasional pen name: Sarah Allen)



Horton, George Moses



Houston, Charles (Hamilton)



Houston, Drusilla (née Dunjee)



Howard University Press



Hudson, Cheryl



Hughes, (James Mercer) Langston



Hull, Akasha (née Gloria Theresa Thompson)



Hunter, Alberta



Hunter (second married name: Lattany), Kristin (née Eggleston)



Hunter, Latoya



Hunter-Gault, Charlayne



Hurston, Zora Neale



Hutson, Jean (née Blackwell)



Ice-T (né Tracey [or Tracy] Lauren Morrow [or Marrow])



Iceberg Slim (né Robert Lee Maupin; aka Robert Beck)



Jackson, Angela



Jackson, Elaine



Jackson, George Lester



Jackson, Jesse



Jackson, Sr., Jesse (Louis) (né Jesse Louis Burns-Robinson)



Jackson, Joseph Harrison



Jackson, Mae



Jackson, Mahalia



Jackson, Mattie J.



Jackson, Rebecca (née Cox)



Jacobs, Harriet Ann (pen name: “Linda Brent”)



Jakes, T. D. (Thomas Dexter)



Jeffers, Lance (né Lance Flippin)



Jenkins, Beverly (née Hunter)



Joans, Ted



Joe, Yolanda (aka Garland, Ardella)



Johnson, Amelia E. (Etta) (née Hall)



Johnson, Angela



Johnson, Charles (Richard)



Johnson, Charles (Spurgeon)



Johnson, Fenton



Johnson, Georgia (Blanche) Douglas (née Camp)



Johnson, Helene (née Helen)



Johnson, James Weldon



Johnson, John H. (Harold) (né Johnnie Johnson)



Johnson, Kathryn Magnolia



Johnson, Mat



Johnson Publishing Company



Johnson, William



Jones, Edward P.



Jones, Gayl (Amanda)



Jones, Sarah



Jones, Tayari



Jones-Meadows, Karen



Jordan, Barbara (Charline)



Jordan, June (aka her former married name, Meyer)



Josey, E. J. (Elonnie Junius)



Journals and Magazines, Literary



Just, Ernest Everett



Just Us Books



Karenga, Maulana Ron (né Ronald McKinley Everett)



Kaufman, (Robert) “Bob” (Garnell)



Keckley, Elizabeth (née Hobbs)



Keene, Jr., John R.



Kelley (aka Kelley-Hawkins), Emma Dunham



Kelley, William Melvin



Kenan, Randall



Kennedy (married name), Adrienne (née Adrienne Lita Hawkins) (occasional pseudonym Adrienne Cornell)



Killens, John Oliver



Kincaid, Jamaica (née Elaine Potter Richardson)



King, “B. B.” (Riley B.)



King, Boston



King, Coretta (née Scott)



King, Jr., Martin Luther



King, Jr., Woodie



Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press



Knight, Etheridge



Komunyakaa, Yusef (né James Willie Brown, Jr.)



Kweli, Talib (né Talib Kweli Greene)



Ladner, Joyce A.



Lane (married name), Pinkie (née Gordon)



Langston, John Mercer



Larsen, Nella (née Nellie Walker)



Latifah, Queen (née Dana Elaine Owens)



Latimer, Catherine A. (née Allen)



Latimer, Lewis Howard



LaValle, Victor



Lawrence-Lightfoot, Sara



Lee, Andrea



Lee, Barbara



Lee, Jarena



Lee, Spike (né Shelton Jackson Lee)



Lester, Julius



Lewis, David Levering



Lewis, Samella Sanders



Locke, Alain (LeRoy)



Logan, Rayford W. (Whittington)



Lomax, Louis E. (Emanuel)



Lorde, Audre (née Audrey Geraldine Lorde) (aka Gamba Adisa)



Lotus Press



Love, Nat (aka “Deadwood Dick”)



Love, Rose Leary



Lynch, John R. (Roy)



Lyndon, Cesar



Mackey, Nathaniel



Madgett (2nd married name), Naomi Long (née Naomi Cornelia Long)



Madhubuti, Haki (né Don L. [Luther] Lee)



Major, Clarence



Malveaux, Julianne (Marie)



Marrant, John



Marshall (married name), Paule (née Burke)



Marshall, Thurgood



Matheus, John F. (Frederick)



Mathis (married name), Sharon (née Bell)



Matthews (married name), Victoria (née Earle)



Mayfield, Curtis



Mayfield, Julian (Hudson)



Maynard, Nancy Hicks (né Nancy Alene Hall)



Mays, Benjamin Elijah



McDonald, Janet A.



McDuffie, Dwayne Glenn



McElroy (married name), Colleen (née Johnson)



McFadden, Bernice L. (aka Geneva Holliday)



McGhee, “Brownie” (Walter Brown)



McGirt, James E. (Ephraim)



McGruder, Aaron (Vincent)



McKay, Claude (né Festus Claudius McKay)



McKay, Nellie Yvonne (née Reynolds)



McKissack (married name), Patricia L’Ann (née Carwell)



McMillan, Terry



McPherson, James Alan



Mebane, Mary E. (Elizabeth)



Meriwether (1st married name; 2nd married name: Howe), Louise (née Jenkins)



Merrick, Lyda (née Moore)



Messenger, The



Micheaux, Oscar



Miller, E. (Eugene) Ethelbert



Miller, Kelly



Miller (married name: Sullivan), May



Millican (2nd married name), Arthenia (Bernetta) J. (née Jackson) Bates (1st married name)



Milner, Ronald



Mitchell, Loften



Monroe, Mary (née Nicholson)



Moody, Anne (née Essie Mae)



Moore, Opal



Morrison, Toni (née Chloe Anthony Wofford)



Mosley, Walter (Ellis)



Moss (married name), Thylias (née Thylias Rebecca Brasier)



Mossell, Gertrude Bustill



Motley, Willard



Moutoussamy-Ashe, Jeanne



Mowry, Jess



Mullen, Harryette (Romell)



Murphy, Beatrice M.



Murphy, Carl



Murray, Albert L.



Murray, Daniel Alexander Payne



Murray, (Anna) “Pauli” (Pauline)



Myers, Walter Dean (né Walter Milton Myers)



National Association of Black Journalists



Naylor, Gloria



Neal, “Larry” (Lawrence Paul)



Neely, Barbara



Negro: An Anthology



Negro Digest (1942–1951, 1961–1970); renamed Black World (1970–1976), and later First World (1977–1983)



Negro World



Nell, William C. (Cooper)



Nelson, Jill



Nelson, Kadir (KadirNelson)



New York Age



Newsome, (Mary) Effie (née Lee)



Newspapers



Nkombo (aka Echoes from the Gumbo)



Nommo



North Star, Frederick Douglass’ Paper, and Douglass Monthly



Northup, Solomon



Nugent, Richard (Bruce) (a.k.a. Richard Bruce, Bruce Nugent)



OBAC, Organization of Black American Culture



Obama, II, Barack (Hussein)



Obsidian: Black Literature in Review



Okorafor, Nnedi



Oliver, Diane (Alene)



Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life



Oral Tradition (including Griots, Storytelling, not Oratory and Speeches)



Organizations, Clubs, and Collectives



Ormes, “Jackie” (née Zelda Jackson)



Osbey, Brenda Marie



Owen, Chandler



Packer, ZZ



Page, Clarence



Painter, Nell (née Irvin)



Park, Robert E. (Ezra)



Parker, Pat (née Patricia Cooks)



Parks, Sr., Gordon



Parks, Suzan-Lori



Parsons (common-law husband’s surname), Lucy Gonzalez



Patterson, Lillie



Patterson, Orlando



Patterson, Raymond R.



Patterson, William



Payne, Daniel A. (Alexander)



Payne, Ethel L. (Lois)



Paynter, John H.



Pennington, James W. (William) C. (Charles) (né Jim Pembroke)



Perkins, Eugene (aka Useni Eugene Perkins)



Peterson, Louis (Stamford)



Petry, Ann (née Lane)



Pharr, Robert Deane



Phillips, Carl



Phylon



Pickens, William



Pickett, Wilson



Pietri, Pedro Juan



Pittsburgh Courier



Plato, Ann



Plumpp, Sterling



Polite, Carlene (née Hatcher)



Porter, James Amos



Porter Wesley, Dorothy Louise (née Burnett)



Poston, Ted (né Theodore Roosevelt Augustus Major Poston)



Poussaint, Alvin Francis



Powell, Jr., Adam Clayton



Powell, Sr., Adam Clayton



Powell, Kevin



Prince, Mary



Prince (married name), Nancy (née Gardner)



Proverbs



Pryor, Richard



Publishers



Quarles, Benjamin



Quill Club



Raboteau, Emily



Rahman, Aishah (née Virginia Hughes)



Rainey, Gertrude (née Pridgett) “Ma”



Rampersad, Arnold



Randall, Alice (née Mari-Alice Randall) (aka Alice Randall Ewing)



Randall, Dudley (Felker)



Randolph, A. (Asa) Philip



Rankine, Claudia



Raspberry, William (James)



Ray, Henrietta Cordelia



Razaf, Andy



Reagon, Bernice (née Johnson)



Reason, Charles L.



Redbone Press



Redding, (James) “Jay” Saunders



Redding, Otis



Redmond, Eugene



Reed, Ishmael



Remond, Sarah (née Parker)



Rhodes, Jewell Parker



Richards, Beah (aka Beulah Richardson)



Richardson, Willis



Ridley, John



Riggs, Marlon Troy



Ringgold (2nd married name), Faith (née Faith Willi Jones)



Rivers, Conrad Kent



Robeson (married name), Eslanda (“Essie”) Cardozo (née Goode)



Robeson, Paul



Robinson, Max (né Maxie)



Rock, Chris (né Christopher Julius Rock III)



Rodgers, Carolyn (Marie)



Rogers, Joel Augustus



Rollins, Charlemae (née Hill)



Roper, Moses



Ross, Fran



Ross-Barnett, Marguerite



Rowan, Carl T. (Thomas)



Ruffin, Josephine St. Pierre



Ruggles, David



Rush, Gertrude E. (née Durden)



Russwurm, John (né Brown)



Rustin, Bayard



Rux, Carl Hancock (né Carl Stephen Hancock)



Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women



Salaam, Kalamu ya (né Vallery Ferdinand III)



Sanchez, Sonia (Benita) (née Wilsonia Driver)



Sanders, Dori



Sapphire (née Ramona Lofton)



Saunders, Charles R.



Scarborough, William Sanders



Schomburg, Arthur A. (né Arturo Alfonso Schomburg) (occasional pseudonym: Guarionex)



Schuyler, George Samuel



Schuyler, Philippa Duke



Scott, Jr., Nathan A. (Alexander)



Scott-Heron, Gil



Séjour, Victor (né Juan Victor Séjour Marcon-Ferrand)



Senna, Carl



Shakur, Assata Olugbala (née Jo Anne Deborah Byron; married name: Chesimard)



Shakur, Tupac (2Pac)



Shange, Ntozake (née Paulette Williams)



Shepherd, Reginald



Shine, Ted (Theodis)



Shockley, Ann (née Ann Allen)



Simmons, Herbert Alfred



Simmons, William J.



Sissle, Noble



Slave Narratives



Smith, Amanda (née Berry)



Smith, Anna Deveare



Smith, Barbara



Smith, Effie Waller



Smith, Jessie (née Carney)



Smith, Lillian Eugenia



Smith, Venture



Smith, William Gardner



Smitherman, Geneva (aka Geneva Smitherman-Donaldson)



Southerland, Ellease (aka Ebele Oseye)



Southern, Eileen Stanza (née Jackon)



Spear, Chloe



Spence, Eulalie



Spencer (married name), “Anne” (née Annie Bethel Bannister)



Spillers, Hortense J.



Spingarn, Arthur B. (Barnett)



Spirituals



Spivey, Victoria Regina



Steele, Claude M. (Mason)



Steptoe, John (Lewis)



Sterling (married surname), Dorothy (née Dannenberg)



Steward, Theophilus Gould



Stewart, Maria W. (née Maria Miller)



Still, William



Stone, Chuck (né Charles Sumner Stone, Jr.)



Stowe, Harriet Beecher



Sundiata, Sekou (né Robert Franklin Feaster)



Survey Graphic



Tanner, Benjamin Tucker



Tanner, Obour



Tarry, Ellen



Tate, Claudia



Tate, Eleanora E.



Taylor, Mildred (Delois)



Taylor, Susan L.



Taylor, Susie (née Baker King)



Terrell, Mary Eliza (née Church)



Terry (married name: Prince), Lucy



Third World Press (TWP)



Thomas, Joyce Carol



Thomas, Lorenzo



Thomas, Piri (né Juan Pedro Tomás)



Thompson, Era Bell



Thurman, Howard



Thurman, Wallace (Henry)



Tillman, Katherine Davis (née Chapman)



Tolson, Melvin (Beaunorus) (“Cap”)



Toomer, Jean (né Nathan Pinchback Toomer)



Torrence, Jackie



Touré, Askia Muhammad Abu Bakr el (né Rolland Snellings)



Trethewey, Natasha



Trickster Tales



Trotter, Geraldine (“Deenie”) (née Pindell)



Trotter, James Monroe



Trotter, (William) Monroe



Troupe, Jr., Quincy (Thomas)



Truth, Sojourner (legal name: Isabella Van Wagenen; slave name: Isabella Baumfree)



Tubman, Harriet (née Araminta Ross; renamed Harriet by her mother)



Turner, Darwin T. (Theodore Troy)



Turner, Henry McNeal



Turner, Lorenzo Dow



Turner, Nat



Turpin, Waters (Edward)



Tyree, Omar (Rashad) (né Antwynne McLaurin; aka “Urban Griot”)



Tyson, Neil deGrasse



Umbra



Van Dyke, Henry



Van Peebles, Melvin (né Melvin Peebles)



van Sertima, Ivan (Gladstone)



Van Vechten, Carl



Vann, Robert Lee



Vashon, George B. (Boyer)



Vernon, Olympia



Voice of the Negro, The



Vroman, Mary Elizabeth



Walcott, Derek (Alton)



Walker, A’Lelia (née Lelia Mc Williams)



Walker, Alice



Walker, David



Walker (married name: Alexander), Margaret (Abigail)



Walker, Rebecca (né Rebecca Leventhal)



Walker, Wyatt Tee



Walrond, Eric (Derwent)



Walter, Mildred Pitts



Walton, Anthony



Waniek (1st married name; 2nd married name: Wilkenfield), Marilyn (née Nelson) (aka Marilyn Nelson)



Ward, Douglas Turner



Ward, Jesmyn (jesmimi)



Ward, Samuel (Ringgold)



Ward, Theodore



Washington, Booker T. (né Booker Taliaferro)



Waters, Ethel



Weatherly, Tom



Weaver, Afaa M. (Michael) (né Michael S. Weaver)



Weaver, Robert C. (Clifton)



Webb, Frank J. (Johnson)



Wells-Barnett (née Wells), Ida B. (Bell) (aka “Iola”)



Welsing, Frances (née Cress)



Wesley, Charles Harris



Wesley, Valerie Wilson



West, Cornel (Ronald)



West, Dorothy



Wheatley (married surname: Peters), Phillis



Whipper, Frances A. (née Rollin)



Whipper, William



White, Paulette (née Childress)



White, Walter F. (Francis)



Whitehead, Colson



Whitfield, James Monroe



Whitman, Albery Allson



Wideman, John Edgar



Wilkins, Roger Wood



Wilkinson, Brenda (Scott)



Williams, Chancellor



Williams, Edward Christopher (aka Bertuccio Dantino)



Williams, George Washington



Williams, John A. (Alfred)



Williams, Patricia J. (Joyce)



Williams, Jr., Peter



Williams, Robert Franklin



Williams, Samm-Art (né Samuel Arthur)



Williams, Sherley Anne



Williams, Jr., Spencer



Williams, III, Stanley Tookie (aka inmate CDC# C29300)



Williams-Garcia, Rita (né Rita Williams)



Wilson, August (né Frederick August Kittel)



Wilson, Harriet E. (née Harriet E. Adams) (aka Hattie E. Wilson)



Wilson, William Julius



Winfrey, Oprah (Gail)



Wonder, Stevie (né Stevland [Hardaway] Judkins Morris)



Woodson, Carter G. (Godwin)



Woodson, Jacqueline (Amanda)



Wright, Charles S. (Stevenson)



Wright, Courtni (né Crump)



Wright, Jay



Wright, Richard (Nathaniel)



Wright, Sarah E. (Elizabeth)



X, Malcolm (né Malcolm Little; Islamic name: El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz)



X, Marvin (né Marvin Ellis Jackmon) (aka El Muhajir; aka Nazzam al Fitnah Muhajir; aka Marvin X Jackmon)



Yarbrough, Camille (aka Nana Camille Yarbrough; enthroned titles, Naa Kuokor Agyman I Queen Mother, Nana Tabuoa Tonko II)



Yerby, Frank G. (Garvin)



Young, Al (né Albert James Young)



Young, Kevin



Young, Jr., Whitney M. (Moore)



Zu-Bolton, III, Ahmos



Primary Documents



The Forme of a Binding Servant, 1635



An Indentured Servant’s Letter Home, 1623



Colonial Laws



A Minute Against Slavery, Addressed to Germantown Monthly Meeting, 1688



Phyllis Wheatley: Letter to Rev. Samson Occum February 11, 1774



Alexander Falconbridge, The African Slave Trade (1788)



Inventory of Estate of Mark Cosby 1752 November 20



Bars Fight



To the Right Honourable William, Earl of Dartmouth



A Narrative of the Most Remarkable Particulars in the Life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, an African Prince, as related by Himself



Proclamation of Earl of Dunmore



Vermont’s 1777 Constitution, the First to Outlaw Slavery



Free at Last



Steal Away to Jesus



Swing Low Sweet Chariot



Absalom Jones and Richard Allen Preamble of the Free African Society, 12 April 1787



Excerpt from Olaudah Equiano’s Slave Narrative, 1789



Letter from Benjamin Banneker to Thomas Jefferson



Response to Benjamin Banneker



Letter to William Basset



Excerpt from The Poetical Works of George M. Horton, the Colored Bard of North Carolina To Which is Prefixed The Life Of The Author, Written by Himself



Our Paper and Its Prospects



Sojourner Truth (1797-1883): Ain’t I A Woman?



“What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?”



Excerpt from the Dred Scott v. Sanford Decision, 1857



Interview with Walter Calloway



The Emancipation Proclamation



The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution



Our Raison D’être.



The Honorable Frederick Douglass’s Letter to Ida Wells



How It Feels to Be Colored Me,



Excerpt from Zora Neale Hurston’s Cold Keener, A Revue



Testimony of Fannie Lou Hamer



The Ballot or the Bullet



Excerpt from Black Power Speech



The Black Panther Platform, October 1966



The Combahee River Collective Statement Combahee River Collective



Inauguration Poem



Praise Song for the Day



Nobel Lecture, December 7, 1993



A More Perfect Union “The Race Speech”



A Herstory of the #BlackLivesMatter Movement



Appendices



Appendix A: Chronology of Writers



Appendix B: Chronology of Firsts



Appendix C: Timeline



Appendix D: Writers by Genre



Appendix E: Writers by Occupation



Appendix F: References



Appendix G: Key to References